Tourism

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**Definition and Types of Tourism**:
– The English words ‘tourist’ and ‘tourism’ originated in 1772 and 1811, respectively.
– Definitions by various organizations over the years emphasize travel not leading to permanent residence or earning activity.
– Types of tourism include nature, eco, adventure, and cultural tourism.
– Tourism products consist of tangible and intangible elements sold through distribution channels.
International tourism involves travel across borders for leisure, business, and other purposes.

**Sustainable Tourism**:
– Global tourism contributes to about 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions.
Sustainable tourism aims to balance economic growth, social responsibility, and environmental conservation.
– Organizations focus on sustainable tourism to mitigate negative impacts on local communities and economies.
– Emerging tourism industries like space tourism and virtual tourism align with sustainable practices.
– The United Nations promotes sustainable tourism as part of the Sustainable Development Goals.

**Tourism Trends and Impact**:
– Tourism numbers fluctuate due to economic recessions, health crises, and global events.
International tourism receipts and arrivals have shown growth over the years.
– Emerging source markets like China, Russia, and Brazil are increasing their tourism spending.
– Tourism contributes significantly to the global economy, job creation, and cultural preservation.
Sustainable tourism practices are essential for minimizing negative impacts on local communities and ecosystems.

**Historical Evolution of Tourism**:
– Leisure travel traces back to ancient civilizations and religious pilgrimages.
– The Grand Tour was a traditional educational trip for the upper-class in Europe.
– Leisure travel became popular with the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of travel companies.
– Thomas Cook played a pivotal role in the development of the travel agency business.
– Mass tourism evolved with advancements in transportation, leading to affordable travel options for the masses.

**Niche and Specialized Forms of Tourism**:
– Niche tourism includes various specialty forms like religious tourism, destination weddings, and location vacations.
– Winter tourism has gained popularity in destinations like St. Moritz, Switzerland, and Santa Claus Village in Rovaniemi, Finland.
– Recent developments in tourism include an up-trend in Europe, changes in lifestyle impacting the industry, and the promotion of low-price or zero-price overnight stays.
Ecotourism promotes responsible travel to fragile and protected areas, educating travelers and supporting conservation efforts.

Tourism (Wikipedia)

Tourism is travel for pleasure, and the commercial activity of providing and supporting such travel.UN Tourism defines tourism more generally, in terms which go "beyond the common perception of tourism as being limited to holiday activity only", as people "travelling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure and not less than 24 hours, business and other purposes". Tourism can be domestic (within the traveller's own country) or international, and international tourism has both incoming and outgoing implications on a country's balance of payments.

Tourists at the Temple of Apollo, Delphi, Greece

Tourism numbers declined as a result of a strong economic slowdown (the late-2000s recession) between the second half of 2008 and the end of 2009, and in consequence of the outbreak of the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus, but slowly recovered until the COVID-19 pandemic put an abrupt end to the growth. The United Nations World Tourism Organization estimated that global international tourist arrivals might have decreased by 58% to 78% in 2020, leading to a potential loss of US$0.9–1.2 trillion in international tourism receipts.

Globally, international tourism receipts (the travel item in the balance of payments) grew to US$1.03 trillion (€740 billion) in 2005, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 3.8% from 2010. International tourist arrivals surpassed the milestone of 1 billion tourists globally for the first time in 2012. Emerging source markets such as China, Russia, and Brazil had significantly increased their spending over the previous decade.

Global tourism accounts for c. 8% of global greenhouse-gas emissions. Emissions as well as other significant environmental and social impacts are not always beneficial to local communities and their economies. For this reason, many tourist development organizations have begun to focus on sustainable tourism to mitigate the negative effects caused by the growing impact of tourism. The United Nations World Tourism Organization emphasized these practices by promoting tourism as part of the Sustainable Development Goals, through programs like the International Year for Sustainable Tourism for Development in 2017, and programs like Tourism for SDGs focusing on how SDG 8, SDG 12 and SDG 14 implicate tourism in creating a sustainable economy.

Tourism has reached new dimensions with the emerging industry of space tourism, as well as the cruise ship industry. Another potential new tourism industry is virtual tourism.

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