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**Historical Origins of Surfing:**
– Surfing originated in ancient Peru around 3000 years ago.
– The Moche culture in Peru used reed watercraft for surfing.
– In Polynesia, surfing dates back to around AD 400.
– The art of standing and surfing on boards was invented in Hawaii.
– European explorers witnessed surfing in Polynesia in the 18th century.
– West Africans independently developed surfing skills.
– West Africans in countries like Ghana and Ivory Coast practiced surfing.
– In the 17th century, accounts of surfing in West Africa were documented.
– Surfing was practiced in countries like Liberia and Senegal.

**Cultural Significance and Evolution of Surfing:**
– Ancient Peruvians surfed on reed watercraft.
– The Moche culture used the caballito de totora for surfing.
– The Inca were documented surfing in Callao in the 16th century.
– Surfing was a recreational activity for ancient Peruvians.
– Surfing back to shore was a common practice among ancient Peruvian fishermen.
– Surfing was a significant activity in Polynesian culture.
– Polynesians brought surfing customs to Hawaii.
– Surfing upright on boards was invented in Hawaii.
– Surfing on Paipo boards was common in Polynesia.

**Modern Surfing and its Variants:**
– Surfing is a surface water sport using a board to ride waves.
– Different types of boards are used for surfing.
– Stand-up paddling, long boarding, and short boarding are major subdivisions in surfing.
– Tow-in surfing involves a motorized water vehicle towing the surfer into waves.
– Surfing has evolved to include sports like paddle boarding and sea kayaking.
– Tandem surfing was invented by Duke Kahanamoku in the 1920s.
– It involves a male foundation lifting a female flyer.
– Tandem surfing showcases elegance, strength, and dancelike maneuvers.
– It is done for both exhibition and competitions.

**Surfing Locations and Popular Spots:**
– The North Shore of Oahu in Hawaii is famous for its waves.
– Popular surf spots worldwide include Teahupoo in Tahiti.
– Mavericks in California is known for its big waves.
– Cloudbreak in Fiji is a popular surfing destination.
– Superbank in Gold Coast, Australia, attracts surfers from around the world.
– California has a rich surfing history with notable figures like George Freeth and Duke Kahanamoku.

**Artificial Waves and Their Impact:**
– Artificial reefs and sandbars attract surf tourism.
– Artificial surfing reefs enhance wave quality.
– Benefits of Artificial Waves include providing consistent surfing conditions and attracting tourists.
– Challenges of Artificial Waves include high construction costs and potential environmental impact.
– Examples of successful artificial wave locations include Seagaia Ocean Dome in Japan and Kelly Slater’s Surf Ranch in California.
– Future trends in artificial waves involve advancements in technology and sustainability practices.

Surfing (Wikipedia)

Surfing is a surface water sport in which an individual, a surfer (or two in tandem surfing), uses a board to ride on the forward section, or face, of a moving wave of water, which usually carries the surfer towards the shore. Waves suitable for surfing are primarily found on ocean shores, but can also be found in standing waves in the open ocean, in lakes, in rivers in the form of a tidal bore, or in wave pools.

Mavericks Surf Contest 2010
Highest governing bodyWorld Surf League (WSL), International Surfing Association (ISA)
Mixed-sexYes, separate competitions
EquipmentSurfboard, leash, wetsuit
Country or regionWorldwide
OlympicSince 2020

The term surfing refers to a person riding a wave using a board, regardless of the stance. There are several types of boards. The Moche of Peru would often surf on reed craft, while the native peoples of the Pacific surfed waves on alaia, paipo, and other such water craft. Ancient cultures often surfed on their belly and knees, while the modern-day definition of surfing most often refers to a surfer riding a wave standing on a surfboard; this is also referred to as stand-up surfing.

Another prominent form of surfing is body boarding, where a surfer rides the wave on a bodyboard, either lying on their belly, drop knee (one foot and one knee on the board), or sometimes even standing up on a body board. Other types of surfing include knee boarding, surf matting (riding inflatable mats) and using foils. Body surfing, in which the wave is caught and ridden using the surfer's own body rather than a board, is very common and is considered by some surfers to be the purest form of surfing. The closest form of body surfing using a board is a handboard which normally has one strap over it to fit on one hand. Surfers who body board, body surf, or handboard feel more drag as they move through the water than stand up surfers do. This holds body surfers into a more turbulent part of the wave (often completely submerged by whitewater). In contrast, surfers who instead ride a hydrofoil feel substantially less drag and may ride unbroken waves in the open ocean.

Three major subdivisions within stand-up surfing are stand-up paddling, long boarding and short boarding with several major differences including the board design and length, the riding style and the kind of wave that is ridden.

In tow-in surfing (most often, but not exclusively, associated with big wave surfing), a motorized water vehicle such as a personal watercraft, tows the surfer into the wave front, helping the surfer match a large wave's speed, which is generally a higher speed than a self-propelled surfer can produce. Surfing-related sports such as paddle boarding and sea kayaking that are self-propelled by hand paddles do not require waves, and other derivative sports such as kite surfing and windsurfing rely primarily on wind for power, yet all of these platforms may also be used to ride waves. Recently with the use of V-drive boats,[clarification needed] Wakesurfing, in which one surfs on the wake of a boat, has emerged.[citation needed] As of 2023, the Guinness Book of World Records recognized a 26.2 m (86 ft) wave ride by Sebastian Steudtner at Nazaré, Portugal as the largest wave ever surfed.

During the winter season in the northern hemisphere, the North Shore of Oahu, the third-largest island of Hawaii, is known for having some of the best waves in the world. Surfers from around the world flock to breaks like Backdoor, Waimea Bay, and Pipeline. However, there are still many popular surf spots around the world: Teahupo'o, located off the coast of Tahiti; Mavericks, California, United States; Cloudbreak, Tavarua Island, Fiji; Superbank, Gold Coast, Australia.

In 2016 surfing was added by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) as an Olympic sport to begin at the 2020 Summer Olympics in Japan. The first gold medalists of the Tokyo 2020 surfing men and women's competitions were, respectively, the Brazilian Ítalo Ferreira and the American from Hawaii, Carissa Moore.

Ítalo Ferreira
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