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**Historical and Cultural Significance**:
– Kathmandu has ancient civilizations dating back to 185 AD.
– The city was once a lake drained by Manjushri, as mentioned in Swayambhu Purana.
– Kathmandu has a rich cultural heritage with Hindu and Buddhist majorities.
– It is known for religious and cultural festivities, vital tourism, and as a top travel destination.
– Kathmandu hosts several World Heritage Sites, including Durbar Square and Swayambhu Mahachaitya.

**Geography and Environment**:
– Kathmandu is the largest metropolitan area in the Himalayas, situated at an altitude of 1,400 meters.
– The city is the gateway to the Nepal Himalayas and is part of the Kathmandu Valley.
– Kathmandu is surrounded by municipalities like Lalitpur, Kirtipur, and Madyapur Thimi.
– The city experiences a humid subtropical climate in lower elevations and a subtropical highland climate in higher elevations.
– The surrounding valley is in the Deciduous Monsoon Forest Zone, with dominant tree species like oak, elm, beech, and maple.

**Government and Administration**:
– Kathmandu is the capital and most populous city of Nepal, officially known as Kathmandu Metropolitan City.
– It is the seat of government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal and part of Bagmati Province.
– The city is divided into 32 wards, with a mayor and executive officer overseeing administration.
– Kathmandu Municipal Corporation (KMC) is the primary administrative agency, with detailed ward profiles available.
– Law and order in the city are maintained by the Metropolitan Police, a division of the Nepal Police.

**Infrastructure and Public Services**:
– Electricity in Kathmandu is regulated by the Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA), while water supply is managed by Kathmandu Upatyaka Khanepani Limited (KUKL).
– Waste management includes composting in municipal units and home composting, addressing environmental concerns.
– The completion of the Melamchi Water Supply Project aims to alleviate the city’s water shortage.
– The fire service in Kathmandu, established in 1937, has expanded to serve neighboring areas.
– Kathmandu hosts 28 diplomatic missions and is governed by the Metropolitan Council with elected and nominated members.

**Demographics and Population**:
– Kathmandu is the most populous city in Nepal, with a diverse population including Newars, Hill Brahman, Chhetri, Tamang, and Magar ethnic groups.
– The city’s population was 975,543 in 2011, with an annual growth rate of 6.12%.
– Nepali is the most common mother tongue, followed by Newari, Tamang, Maithili, Gurung, and English.
– The city’s architecture, influenced by Hindu and Buddhist practices, is reflected in its World Heritage Sites and ancient trade routes.

Kathmandu (Wikipedia)

Kathmandu, officially Kathmandu Metropolitan City, is the capital and most populous city of Nepal with 845,767 inhabitants living in 105,649 households as of the 2021 Nepal census and approximately 4 million people in its urban agglomeration. It is located in the Kathmandu Valley, a large valley in the high plateaus in central Nepal, at an altitude of 1,400 metres (4,600 feet).

Kasthamandaw, Kantipur, Yen
Kathmandu Metropolitan City
Flag of Kathmandu
Official seal of Kathmandu
City of Temples
Nepali: सांस्कृतिक सहर, काठमाडौं महानगर, lit.'Cultural City, Kathmandu Metropolitan City'
Kathmandu is located in Bagmati Province
Kathmandu is located in Nepal
Kathmandu is located in Asia
Coordinates: 27°43′N 85°19′E / 27.71°N 85.32°E / 27.71; 85.32
Country   Nepal
Founded byManjushri
Named forKasthamandap
No. of Wards32
 • TypeMayor–council government
 • BodyKathmandu Metropolitan Government
 • MayorBalen Shah (Ind.)
 • Deputy mayorSunita Dangol (UML)
 • Executive OfficerBasanta Adhikari
 • Capital city49.45 km2 (19.09 sq mi)
 • Metro
899 km2 (347 sq mi)
1,400 m (4,600 ft)
 • Capital city856,767
 • Rank1st
 • Density17,103/km2 (44,300/sq mi)
 • Metro
Approximately 4 million
 • Metro rank
Time zoneUTC+05:45 (Nepal Standard Time)
Postal Code
Area code01

The city is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world, founded in the 2nd century AD. The valley was historically called the "Nepal Mandala" and has been the home of the Newar people, a cosmopolitan urban civilization in the Himalayan foothills. The city was the royal capital of the Kingdom of Nepal and hosts palaces, mansions and gardens built by the Nepali aristocracy. It has been home to the headquarters of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) since 1985. Today, it is the seat of government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, established in 2008, and is part of Bagmati Province.

Kathmandu is and has been for many years the centre of Nepal's history, art, culture, and economy. It has a multi-ethnic population within a Hindu and Buddhist majority. Religious and cultural festivities form a major part of the lives of people residing in Kathmandu. Tourism is an important part of the economy in the city. In 2013, Kathmandu was ranked third among the top ten upcoming travel destinations in the world by TripAdvisor, and ranked first in Asia. The city is considered the gateway to the Nepal Himalayas and is home to several World Heritage Sites: the Durbar Square, Swayambhu Mahachaitya, Bouddha and Pashupatinath. Kathmandu valley is growing at 4 per cent per year according to the World Bank in 2010, making it one of the fastest-growing metropolitan areas in South Asia, and the first region in Nepal to face the unprecedented challenges of rapid urbanization and modernization at a metropolitan scale. It is the largest metropolitan area located in the Himalayas.

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