National park

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**1. Establishment and History of National Parks:**
– Naples government enacted laws to protect natural areas in 1735.
– William Wordsworth described the Lake District as national property in 1810.
– George Catlin envisioned preserving Native Americans in a national park in the 1830s.
– The first U.S. effort to protect lands was in Hot Springs, Arkansas in 1832.
– Yellowstone National Park was established in 1872 as the first national park in the world.
– Mackinac National Park in the U.S. was the first to use the term ‘national park’ in its legislation in 1875.
– Royal National Park in Australia, established in 1879, is considered the world’s second official national park.
– Canada’s first national park was Banff National Park in 1885.
– Sweden established its first national parks in 1909, followed by the Swiss National Park in 1914.
– Africa’s first national park was designated in 1925 in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo.

**2. National Park Services and Legislation:**
– The first national park service was established in Canada in 1911.
– Parks Canada administers national parks in Canada.
– The U.S. National Park Service (NPS) was created 44 years after the establishment of Yellowstone.
– President Abraham Lincoln signed an Act of Congress in 1864 ceding Yosemite Valley to California.
– The Act prevented private ownership of the land and designated California to manage the park.
– The establishment of Yellowstone sparked the creation of national parks worldwide.
– Countries like Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Sweden followed the U.S. in creating national parks.
– The U.K. designated its first national park, Peak District National Park, in 1951.

**3. Significance and Conservation of National Parks:**
– John Muir is known as the Father of the National Parks for his work in Yosemite.
– National parks are viewed as essential for conservation and protection of natural resources.
– National parks serve as recreational areas for the public.
– National parks contribute to biodiversity conservation and preservation of natural habitats.
– The Northeast Greenland National Park is the largest national park globally, established in 1974.
Conservation ethic is evident in the establishment of national parks.
– Preservation of nature is a central theme in national park history.

**4. Economic Impact and Tourism in National Parks:**
– Countries like Costa Rica benefit economically from ecotourism.
– Parks play a crucial role in the economic development of nations.
Ecotourism contributes to park management and the overall economy.
– National parks witness a substantial increase in tourism over time.
– Parks are recognized as key drivers of economic growth in many regions.
– Well-designed tourist infrastructure enhances the visitor experience.

**5. Park Management and Concerns:**
– Park rangers are responsible for resource conservation and management.
– Their duties include overseeing interpretive and recreational programs.
– Park rangers are involved in fire fighting and search and rescue operations.
– Some concerns include criticism for perpetuating colonialism, displacement of native communities, and negative impacts of tourism.
– Rethinking human-nature relationships is essential for conservation.

National park (Wikipedia)

A national park is a natural park in use for conservation purposes, created and protected by national governments. Often it is a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed land that a government declares or owns. Although individual countries designate their own national parks differently, there is a common idea: the conservation of 'wild nature' for posterity and as a symbol of national pride. National parks are almost always open to visitors.

Bogd Khan Uul National Park in Mongolia is one of the earliest preserved areas now called a national park.
National parks often allow protected species to flourish. Pictured are Alpine ibexes (Capra ibex) in the Gran Paradiso National Park, Piedmont, Italy. The Ibex population increased tenfold since the area was declared a national park in 1922.

The United States established the first "public park or pleasuring-ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people", Yellowstone National Park, in 1872. Although Yellowstone was not officially termed a "national park" in its establishing law, it was always termed such in practice and is widely held to be the first and oldest national park in the world. However, the Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve (in what is now Trinidad and Tobago; established in 1776), and the area surrounding Bogd Khan Uul Mountain (Mongolia, 1778), which were restricted from cultivation to protect surrounding farmland, are seen as the oldest legally protected areas. Parks Canada, established on May 19, 1911, became the world's first national park service.

An international organization, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and its World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA), has defined "National Park" as its Category II type of protected areas. According to the IUCN, 6,555 national parks worldwide met its criteria in 2006. IUCN is still discussing the parameters of defining a national park.

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