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**History and Development of Orienteering:**
– Orienteering originated in late 19th century Sweden.
– The term ‘orientering’ was first used in 1886.
– It developed from military training to a competitive sport.
– The first public competition was held in Norway in 1897.
– The International Orienteering Federation (IOF) was founded in 1961.
– IOF aims to promote and develop orienteering worldwide.
– IOF is recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) since 1977.

**Governing Bodies of Orienteering:**
– The International Orienteering Federation governs 4 orienteering sports.
– National governing bodies like the British Orienteering Federation and Orienteering USA exist.
– National bodies create rules for their respective countries.
– Regional governing bodies assist in coordinating local clubs.
– Local clubs operate at the grassroots level, organizing events and training sessions.

**Orienteering Maps and Courses:**
– Orienteering maps are specially prepared for competitions and are more detailed than general-purpose maps.
– Map scales are 1:15,000, 1:10,000, or 1:7,500, with grids aligned to magnetic north.
– Courses offer varying physical and technical difficulty levels.
– Control points are marked on the map with white and orange flags.
– Permanent courses are set up by some clubs for training and public use.

**Competition Formats in Orienteering:**
– Orienteering events include long-distance, middle-distance, relay, score, sprint, and ultrasprint races.
– Winners are determined by the fastest time in most events.
– Different scoring systems like score events and Trail-O can be used.
– Safety guidelines are crucial for all participants during events.
– Electronic punching systems help track competitors’ locations for safety purposes.

**Wayfinding and Related Activities:**
– Importance of wayfinding in outdoor spaces for national park visitors.
– Studies on orienteering and map understanding for novice orienteers.
– Semiotics in cartography and wayfinding aids in understanding map symbols.
– Related outdoor activities include adventure racing, geocaching, and fastpacking.
– Various orienteering federations provide information, maps, and resources on the sport.

Orienteering (Wikipedia)

Orienteering is a group of sports that involve using a map and compass to navigate from point to point in diverse and usually unfamiliar terrain whilst moving at speed. Participants are given a topographical map, usually a specially prepared orienteering map, which they use to find control points. Originally a training exercise in land navigation for military officers, orienteering has developed many variations. Among these, the oldest and the most popular is foot orienteering. For the purposes of this article, foot orienteering serves as a point of departure for discussion of all other variations, but almost any sport that involves racing against a clock and requires navigation with a map is a type of orienteering.

The international orienteering flag
Orienteering pictogram

Orienteering is included in the programs of world sporting events including the World Games (see Orienteering at the World Games) and World Police and Fire Games.

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