Nature conservation

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**Foundations of Conservation**

– The term conservation was coined by Gifford Pinchot in 1907.
Conservation refers to systematically protecting natural resources like forests and biological diversity.
Conservation principles are applied to ecology, biogeography, anthropology, and more.
Conservation covers concepts such as cultural and genetic diversity.
– In the USA, the year 1864 saw the foundation of Romantic and Utilitarian conservation traditions.
– Henry David Thoreau’s ‘Walden’ and George Perkins Marsh’s ‘Man and Nature’ influenced conservation ethics.
– The consumer conservation ethic aims to reduce overall societal energy consumption.
Conservation ethics have evolved from advancements in moral reasoning.
– The conservation movement has matured through rigorous consideration of human-organism relationships.

**Conservation Practices and Approaches**

Conservation practices include local purchasing, efficient use of renewable resources, and prevention of harm to common resources.
– These practices aim to slow down the rate of extinction.
Conservation practices have roots in various philosophical and religious beliefs.
Conservation ethic groups anthropocentric, utilitarian conservationism, and radical eco-centric views.
– The conservation ethic was formulated by former US president Theodore Roosevelt.
Conservation focuses on the proper use of natural resources, while preservation aims to protect nature from use.
– Conservationists and preservationists emerged as opposing factions during the early 20th century environmental movement.
Conservation development trends are influenced by historical, cultural, and economic factors.
Conservation management involves assessing management interventions, threats, and economic factors.
– The United States National Park Service distinguishes between conservation and preservation in environmental protection ethics.

**Global Conservation Efforts and Targets**

– As of 2018, 15% of land and 7.3% of oceans were protected.
– The target is to protect 30% of land and marine territory by 2030.
– In 2021, 16.64% of land and 7.9% of oceans were protected.
– The 2022 IPCC report emphasizes conserving 30% to 50% of the Earth’s land and water areas.
– Evidence-based conservation aims to enhance the effectiveness of conservation efforts using scientific evidence.
– Global initiatives aim to protect a significant percentage of Earth’s land and oceans by 2030.

**Conservation Philosophies and Ethics**

Conservation goals include conserving habitat, preventing deforestation, maintaining soil organic matter, halting species extinction, and mitigating climate change.
– Different philosophical outlooks guide conservationists towards these goals.
– The conservation ethic values the natural world for its intrinsic worth and utilitarian value.
– Philosophers attribute intrinsic value to different aspects of nature.
– There is increasing interest in extending responsibility for human wellbeing to include sentient animals.
– Evidence-based conservation involves systematically assessing scientific information, practitioner experiences, and local knowledge.

**Literature and Further Reading on Conservation**

– ‘Conservation and Evolution’ by Frankel and Soulé
– ‘Green Imperialism’ by R.H. Grove
– ‘A Sand County Almanac’ by A. Leopold
– ‘What Works in Conservation’ by W. Sutherland et al.
– ‘The Fight for Conservation’ by G. Pinchot
– Wikiquote on conservation
– Wikimedia Commons on nature conservation
– Major problems in American environmental history
– Nature protection in Europe
– The Urban Opportunity on sustainable cities

Nature conservation is the moral philosophy and conservation movement focused on protecting species from extinction, maintaining and restoring habitats, enhancing ecosystem services, and protecting biological diversity. A range of values underlie conservation, which can be guided by biocentrism, anthropocentrism, ecocentrism, and sentientism, environmental ideologies that inform ecocultural practices and identities. There has recently been a movement towards evidence-based conservation which calls for greater use of scientific evidence to improve the effectiveness of conservation efforts. As of 2018 15% of land and 7.3% of the oceans were protected. Many environmentalists set a target of protecting 30% of land and marine territory by 2030. In 2021, 16.64% of land and 7.9% of the oceans were protected. The 2022 IPCC report on climate impacts and adaptation, underlines the need to conserve 30% to 50% of the Earth's land, freshwater and ocean areas – echoing the 30% goal of the U.N.'s Convention on Biodiversity.

Satellite photograph of industrial deforestation in the Tierras Bajas project in eastern Bolivia, using skyline logging and replacement of forests by agriculture
Much attention has been given to preserving the natural characteristics of Hopetoun Falls, Australia, while allowing access for visitors
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