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**Birding Terminology and Distinctions:**
– The term ‘birdwatcher’ coined in 1901 by Edmund Selous.
– ‘Bird’ introduced as a verb in 1918.
– ‘Birding’ initially referred to fowling or hunting.
– ‘Twitching’ – British term for pursuing rare birds.
– Distinction between birders and birdwatchers.
– ‘Twitchers’ chase rare birds and have their own vocabulary.

**History and Evolution of Birdwatching:**
– Interest in bird observation for aesthetic value dates back to the late 18th century.
– Rise of bird study during the Victorian Era.
– Founding of Audubon Society and Royal Society for the Protection of Birds.
– Evolution of birdwatching influenced by organizations and key figures.
– Impact of field guides, optics, and technology on bird identification.

**Environmental and Economic Impact:**
– Birding activity growth in North America in the 20th century.
– Economic contributions of birders to the US economy.
– Birdwatching tourism as a fast-growing sector.
– Impact on biodiversity conservation and environmental education.
– Contributions to citizen science and monitoring bird populations.

**Activities and Monitoring in Birdwatching:**
– Birders’ activities like observing local species and migrations.
– Popular types of birding – seawatching, pelagic birding.
– Monitoring bird populations through censuses and projects.
– Participation in citizen science for tracking bird species.
– Importance of locations like forests, wetlands, and coasts for birding.

**Equipment, Technology, and Sociological Aspects:**
– Common equipment for birding – binoculars, field guides, smartphones.
– Use of sound equipment for bird vocalizations.
– Role of photography and videography in birdwatching.
– Sociological aspects – gender patterns, societal perceptions.
– Importance of networking, organizations, and famous birdwatchers.

Birdwatching (Wikipedia)

Birdwatching, or birding, is the observing of birds, either as a recreational activity or as a form of citizen science. A birdwatcher may observe by using their naked eye, by using a visual enhancement device like binoculars or a telescope, by listening for bird sounds, or by watching public webcams.

Three people birdwatching with binoculars

Most birdwatchers pursue this activity for recreational or social reasons, unlike ornithologists, who engage in the study of birds using formal scientific methods.

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