BASE jumping

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**History of BASE Jumping:**
– Fausto Veranzio’s parachute jump in Venice in 1617.
– Michael Pelkey and Brian Schubert’s El Capitan jump in 1966.
– Carl Boenish’s filming at El Capitan in 1978.
– Introduction of BASE numbers for different jump categories.
– Sponsorship of BASE jumping athletes by companies like Red Bull.

**Equipment and Techniques in BASE Jumping:**
– Evolution of BASE jumping gear from modified skydiving equipment to purpose-built gear.
– Use of larger parachutes with specific wing loading.
– Utilization of extra-large pilot chutes for lower airspeed deployments.
– Adoption of single-parachute harness and container systems.
– Special clothing like wingsuits and tracking suits for improved control and flight characteristics.

**Notable Jumps and Records in BASE Jumping:**
– Various historic jumps like from the Statue of Liberty and Eiffel Tower.
– Notable modern jumps like Karina Hollekim’s ski-BASE jump in 2005.
– World records for lowest and highest BASE jumps.
– Guinness World Record for most BASE jumps in a twenty-four-hour period.
– Group jumps like the 2018 record with 69 BASE jumpers in Norway.

**BASE Jumping Competitions and Comparisons:**
– Introduction of BASE competitions since the early 1980s.
– Criteria for judging including accurate landings and free-fall aerobatics.
– Specific competitions like the one at the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur.
– Comparison with skydiving in terms of altitudes and equipment.
– First wingsuit BASE jumping competition held in China by the World Wingsuit League.

**Safety, Legality, and Resources in BASE Jumping:**
– High fatality and injury rates compared to skydiving.
– Studies on fatality risks and nonfatal accidents in BASE jumping.
– Legal aspects including permits, bans in U.S. National Parks, and consequences of unauthorized jumps.
– Resources for further reading and information on BASE jumping.
– Enforcement of safety precautions and training for BASE jumpers.

BASE jumping (Wikipedia)

BASE jumping (/bs/) is the recreational sport of jumping from fixed objects, using a parachute to descend safely to the ground. "BASE" is an acronym that stands for four categories of fixed objects from which one can jump: buildings, antennas (referring to radio masts), spans (bridges), and earth (cliffs). Participants exit from a fixed object such as a cliff, and after an optional freefall delay, deploy a parachute to slow their descent and land. A popular form of BASE jumping is wingsuit BASE jumping.

BASE jump at Pizda materina, Oman, 2013
BASE jumping from Sapphire Tower, Istanbul

In contrast to other forms of parachuting, such as skydiving from airplanes, BASE jumps are performed from fixed objects which are generally at much lower altitudes, and BASE jumpers only carry one parachute. BASE jumping is significantly more hazardous than other forms of parachuting, and is widely considered to be one of the most dangerous extreme sports.

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