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**History of Aviation**:
– Coined by Gabriel La Landelle in 1863, derived from the French verb ‘avier’ and Latin word ‘avis’.
– Modern aviation began in the 18th century, with controlled gliding by Otto Lilienthal in 1896 and the first powered airplane by the Wright brothers in the early 1900s.
– Introduction of jet aircraft revolutionized aviation, with a timeline of significant milestones available for reference.
– Early legends of human flight, hot air balloons by the Montgolfier brothers, and the development of rigid airships mark the early beginnings of aviation.

**Types of Aircraft**:
– **Lighter than Air**: Includes the first untethered human flight in 1783, dirigible balloons, and the rise and fall of airships like those by the Zeppelin company.
– **Heavier than Air**: Sir George Cayley’s concept of the modern airplane, Otto Lilienthal’s successful glider flights, and the Wright brothers’ pioneering powered flight in 1903.
– **Operations of Aircraft**: Civil aviation encompasses general aviation and scheduled air transport, with major manufacturers like Airbus, Boeing, and others. Military aviation involves specific roles for aircraft like fighters, bombers, and transport planes.

**Aviation Safety**:
– Aims to reduce and control risks associated with aviation activities through theory, practice, and regulation.
– Involves investigation, prevention of flight failures, and campaigns to inform the public about air travel safety.
– Aviation accidents and incidents, including definitions, the first fatal accident, and hull loss accidents, are crucial aspects of safety measures.

**Innovations in Aviation**:
– From composite material airframes to efficient engines since the 1960s, innovations like GPS, powerful computers, and supersonic passenger services like Concorde have transformed aviation.
Exploration of alternative fuels like ethanol, electricity, and hydrogen to decarbonize the industry, alongside milestones like SpaceShipOne’s spaceflight in 2004.

**Air Traffic Control and Environmental Impact**:
– **Air Traffic Control**: Ensures aircraft separation, coordinates positions, and provides crucial services for IFR flights.
– **Environmental Impact**: Aircraft emissions, high-altitude activities, noise pollution, and the use of lead-containing avgas in light piston aircraft are significant concerns for the environment.

Aviation (Wikipedia)

Aviation includes the activities surrounding mechanical flight and the aircraft industry. Aircraft includes fixed-wing and rotary-wing types, morphable wings, wing-less lifting bodies, as well as lighter-than-air craft such as hot air balloons and airships.

A Boeing 747

Aviation began in the 18th century with the development of the hot air balloon, an apparatus capable of atmospheric displacement through buoyancy. Some of the most significant advancements in aviation technology came with the controlled gliding flying of Otto Lilienthal in 1896; then a large step in significance came with the construction of the first powered airplane by the Wright brothers in the early 1900s. Since that time, aviation has been technologically revolutionized by the introduction of the jet which permitted a major form of transport throughout the world.

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