United States Navy

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**Historical Evolution and Major Conflicts:**
– Originated from colonial seafaring tradition.
– Massachusetts had its own naval militia during the American Revolutionary War.
– Celebrates its birthday on October 13 in honor of the establishment in 1775.
– Played a significant role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy.
– Central role in the defeat of Imperial Japan in World War II.
– U.S. Navy victorious in single-ship duels with Royal Navy during the War of 1812.
– U.S. Navy blockaded Mexican ports during the Mexican-American War.
– Union blockade in the Civil War shut down exports and coastal trade.
– Modernization program stimulated American steel industry in the 20th century.
– U.S. Navy’s victory over Spanish Navy in 1898.
– U.S. Navy participated in significant battles like Battle of Midway in World War II.
– Battleship production restarted in 1937 before World War II.
– U.S. Navy grew tremendously during WWII and became the most powerful navy post-war.
– U.S. Navy larger than combined fleets of other nations by 1943 in WWII.

**Doctrine Shifts and Modernization:**
– U.S. Navy favored battleships as main offensive weapons post-World War II.
– Pearl Harbor attack led to reliance on aircraft carriers for retaliation.
– Aircraft carriers USS Saratoga and USS Lexington built in the interwar years.
– U.S. Navy focused on technological advancements during the Cold War.
– Building of super-dreadnoughts to compete with Britain in the 20th century.
– Establishment of United States Naval Flying Corps in the early 20th century.
– U.S. Navy shifted focus to special operations and regional conflicts in the 21st century.
– Continued development of new ships and weapons like the Gerald R. Ford-class aircraft carrier.
– Adoption of maritime strategy emphasizing prevention of war in the 21st century.

**Organizational Structure and Forces:**
– U.S. Navy falls under the Department of the Navy.
– Civilian leadership by the Secretary of the Navy.
– Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer.
– Components include Fleet Forces Command, Pacific Fleet, and Naval Special Warfare Command.
– Seven active numbered fleets led by vice admirals.
– Shore establishments support fleet missions with land facilities.
United States Marine Corps came under the Department of the Navy in 1834.
– Over 400,000 personnel in the United States Navy.
– Enlisted sailors and commissioned officers make up the majority.

**Personnel and Ranks in the Navy:**
– Personnel Qualification Standards tasks are essential for proving skills.
– Different warfare qualifications denote sailors’ capabilities.
– Basic military training at boot camp is followed by career-specific training.
– Sailors in E-1 to E-3 are in apprenticeships.
– E-4 to E-6 are non-commissioned officers.
– Petty Officers serve as leaders to junior enlisted personnel.
– E-7 to E-9 are considered a separate community within the Navy.
– Enlisted service members progress through ranks like Seaman, Petty Officer, Chief Petty Officer, Senior Chief Petty Officer, and Master Chief Petty Officer.

**Insignia, Badges, and Installations:**
– Insignia and badges are awarded to Navy personnel for achieving specific qualifications and accomplishments.
– Most naval aviation insignia can also be worn by members of the United States Marine Corps.
– U.S. Navy operates numerous installations to support its operations worldwide.
– Bases are located within the United States as well as in U.S.-controlled territories and foreign countries under agreements like SOFA.
– Hampton Roads, Virginia, houses a significant concentration of Navy installations covering over 36,000 acres.

United States Navy (Wikipedia)

The United States Navy (USN) is the maritime service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the eight uniformed services of the United States. It is the world's most powerful navy and the largest by tonnage, at 4.5 million tons in 2021 and in 2009 an estimated battle fleet tonnage that exceeded the next 13 navies combined. It has the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with 11 in service, 1 undergoing trials, two new carriers under construction, and six other carriers planned as of 2024. With 336,978 personnel on active duty and 101,583 in the Ready Reserve, the U.S. Navy is the third largest of the United States military service branches in terms of personnel. It has 299 deployable combat vessels and about 4,012 operational aircraft as of July 18, 2023.

United States Navy
Emblem of the United States Navy
Founded27 March 1794
(230 years, 2 months)
(in current form)

13 October 1775
(248 years, 8 months)
(as the Continental Navy)

Country United States
Size334,896 active duty personnel
54,741 Navy Reserve personnel
387,637 total uniformed personnel (official data as of July 31, 2023)
279,471 civilian employees (As of 2018)
480 ships total, of which 300 are deployable (As of 2019)
2,623 aircraft (As of 2018)
Part ofUnited States Armed Forces
Department of the Navy
HeadquartersThe Pentagon
Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.
Motto(s)Semper Fortis ('Always Courageous'), (unofficial).
Non sibi sed patriae ('Not for self but for country') (unofficial)
ColorsBlue and gold
March"Anchors Aweigh" Play
Anniversaries13 October
EquipmentList of equipment of the United States Navy
See list
Commander-in-Chief President Joe Biden
Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin
Secretary of the Navy Carlos Del Toro
Chief of Naval Operations ADM Lisa Franchetti
Vice Chief of Naval Operations ADM James W. Kilby
Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy MCPON James Honea

The United States Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, which was established during the American Revolutionary War and was effectively disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter. After suffering significant loss of goods and personnel at the hands of the Barbary pirates from Algiers, the United States Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 for the construction of six heavy frigates, the first ships of the Navy. The United States Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers. It played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The United States Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world. The modern United States Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, and the Indian Ocean. It is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and rapidly respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in American foreign and military policy.

The United States Navy is part of the Department of the Navy, alongside the United States Marine Corps, which is its coequal sister service. The Department of the Navy is headed by the civilian secretary of the Navy. The Department of the Navy is itself a military department of the Department of Defense, which is headed by the secretary of defense. The chief of naval operations (CNO) is the most senior Navy officer serving in the Department of the Navy.

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