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**Types of Motivation**:
– Motivation is an internal force driving goal-directed behavior.
– Motivational states explain initiation, continuation, or termination of behavior.
– Characteristics include goal direction, intensity, and persistence.
– Components like direction, intensity, and persistence are key.
– Motivation can be intrinsic (internal factors) or extrinsic (external factors).
– Conscious, unconscious, rational, irrational, biological, cognitive, short-term, long-term, egoistic, altruistic, moral, and achievement motivations are discussed.
Human vs. animal motivation and amotivation are explored.

**Theories of Motivation**:
– Aim to explain motivational phenomena.
– Seek to understand causes and effects of motivation.
– Explain why individuals engage in specific behaviors.
– Debates include innate vs. learned motivation and mechanistic vs. cognitive processes.
– Classified into content theories (Maslow, Alderfer, Herzberg, McClelland) and process theories (expectancy, equity, goal-setting, self-determination).
– Role of physiological processes and cultural influences are considered.

**Motivation in Different Contexts**:
Education: Affects student participation and success.
– Work: Impacts employee satisfaction and performance.
Sport: Crucial for training consistency and athlete effort.
– The brain areas involved in motivation and reward prediction are studied.
– Factors influencing motivation in each context are explored.

**Components and Stages of Motivation**:
– Motivation consists of direction, intensity, and persistence.
– Stages include goal-setting and goal-striving.
– Motivational reasons explain individuals’ actions.
– Emotional states influence goal-setting and prioritization.
– Self-reflection may follow goal achievement.

**Debates and Neurology in Motivation**:
– Major debates in motivation include internal needs vs. external goals.
– The connection between motivation, cognitive processes, and decision-making is discussed.
– Neurology studies motivation from a physiological perspective.
– Data is obtained through methods like fMRI and PET scans.
– Brain areas involved in reward prediction and decision-making are explored.

Motivation (Wikipedia)

Motivation is an internal state that propels individuals to engage in goal-directed behavior. It is often understood as a force that explains why people or animals initiate, continue, or terminate a certain behavior at a particular time. It is a complex phenomenon and its precise definition is disputed. It contrasts with amotivation, which is a state of apathy or listlessness. Motivation is studied in fields like psychology, motivation science, and philosophy.

Photo of school children sitting in the shade of an orchard in Bamozai, near Gardez, Paktia Province, Afghanistan
Photo of a wood worker
Shopping in a supermarket
Photo of the Berlin Marathon 2007
Motivation is relevant in many fields and affects educational success, work performance, consumer behavior, and athletic success.

Motivational states are characterized by their direction, intensity, and persistence. The direction of a motivational state is shaped by the goal it aims to achieve. Intensity is the strength of the state and affects whether the state is translated into action and how much effort is employed. Persistence refers to how long an individual is willing to engage in an activity. Motivation is often divided into two phases: in the first phase, the individual establishes a goal, while in the second phase, they attempt to reach this goal.

Many types of motivation are discussed in the academic literature. Intrinsic motivation comes from internal factors like enjoyment and curiosity. It contrasts with extrinsic motivation, which is driven by external factors like obtaining rewards and avoiding punishment. For conscious motivation, the individual is aware of the motive driving the behavior, which is not the case for unconscious motivation. Other types include rational and irrational motivation, biological and cognitive motivation, short-term and long-term motivation, and egoistic and altruistic motivation.

Theories of motivation are conceptual frameworks that seek to explain motivational phenomena. Content theories aim to describe which internal factors motivate people and which goals they commonly follow. Examples are the hierarchy of needs, the two-factor theory, and the learned needs theory. They contrast with process theories, which discuss the cognitive, emotional, and decision-making processes that underlie human motivation, like expectancy theory, equity theory, goal-setting theory, self-determination theory, and reinforcement theory. Motivation is relevant to many fields. It affects educational success, work performance, athletic success, and economic behavior. It is further pertinent in the fields of personal development, health, and criminal law.

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