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**Observation in Science:**
– The scientific method involves formulating and testing hypotheses through observations of natural phenomena.
– Steps include asking a question, making observations, formulating a hypothesis, testing predictions, and drawing conclusions.
– Observations play a crucial role in various steps of the scientific method.
– Measurement allows for the recording and comparison of observations by reducing them to standard units.
– Scientific instruments aid human observation abilities and make unobservable events perceptible.

**Observation Paradoxes:**
– Paradoxes arise in certain scientific fields where observations differ based on factors not apparent in everyday observation.
– Relativistic physics shows that observers may perceive different values for object properties based on their velocity relative to the object.
– Quantum mechanics indicates that observing a system changes it, with quantum objects existing in superpositions until observed.

**Observational Biases:**
Human senses are influenced by unconscious processes of abstraction, leading to biases in observations.
– Perception is shaped by internal schemas and value systems, affecting reconstructive memory and differing perceptions of events.
– Confirmation bias causes observers to see what they expect to see, impacting scientific research and discoveries.
– Techniques like blind experiments are used to minimize biases and separate observations from conclusions.

**Confirmation Bias in Observation:**
– Observations are biased towards confirming observers’ expectations, known as confirmation bias.
– This bias can lead to overlooking new discoveries or supporting cultural myths.
– Scientific research emphasizes careful recording, separating observations from conclusions, and using blind experiments to minimize bias.

**Processing Bias in Observation:**
– Modern scientific instruments can process observations extensively before being presented to human senses, potentially biasing conclusions.
– Some scientific journals set standards for image processing in research results to minimize bias.
– Preservation of raw data from sensors before processing is a defense against processing bias in scientific research.

Observation (Wikipedia)

Observation in the natural sciences is an act or instance of noticing or perceiving and the acquisition of information from a primary source. In living beings, observation employs the senses. In science, observation can also involve the perception and recording of data via the use of scientific instruments. The term may also refer to any data collected during the scientific activity. Observations can be qualitative, that is, the absence or presence of a property is noted and the observed phenomenon described, or quantitative if a numerical value is attached to the observed phenomenon by counting or measuring.

Observing the air traffic in Rõuge, Estonia
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