International tourism

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**1. Historical Trends and Impact on International Tourism:**
– International travel demand fluctuations due to economic recessions and health crises.
– Decline in tourist arrivals and receipts during the late-2000s recession and the 2009 H1N1 influenza outbreak.
– Recovery in travel demand post-recession in 2011 and 2012.
– Severe impact of COVID-19 in 2020, with a potential 58-78% decrease in global tourist arrivals.
– Concerns over travel restrictions and negative economic repercussions on the tourism sector.

**2. Global Tourism Volume and Impact:**
– Growth in international tourist arrivals from 1.035 billion in 2012 to 1.460 billion in 2019.
– Increase in destination spending from US$919 billion in 2010 to US$1.220 trillion in 2016.
– WHO estimates up to 500,000 people in flight at any time, emphasizing the scale of international travel.
– Negative environmental effects due to international tourism, including stress on local infrastructure.

**3. International Tourism Receipts and Expenditures:**
– World Tourism Organization reported US$1.7 trillion in international tourism receipts in 2018.
– Receipts increased by 4% in real terms over 2017.
– Global tourism expenditure reached $1.48 trillion in 2019.
China led outbound tourism expenditure, while the United States was the top destination in expenditure.

**4. Challenges and Impacts on the Tourism Industry:**
– Significant decline in international tourist numbers in 2020 due to COVID-19.
– Airlines and airports faced challenges with reduced business travel.
– Regions like Hawaii and Florida experienced tourism-related issues.
– Calls for government support to counter tourism industry challenges.
– Adaptation and reevaluation of tourism practices and strategies post-pandemic.

**5. Future Trends and Growth in International Tourism:**
– Predictions of a 60-80% decline in international tourist numbers in 2020.
– Studies on preferences for vaccinated venues and long-term effects of COVID-19 on tourism.
– Discussions on border reopening policies and travel restrictions.
– Adaptation to new norms and regulations in the tourism industry post-pandemic.
– Strong growth in international tourism seen in countries like Vietnam, Egypt, and India in 2016.

International tourism is tourism that crosses national borders. Globalisation has made tourism a popular global leisure activity. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people "traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes". The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that up to 500,000 people are in flight at any one time.

International tourism over time
International tourist arrivals per year by region
Modern aviation has made it possible to travel long distances quickly.

In 2010, international tourism reached US$919B, growing 6.5% over 2009, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 4.7%. In 2010, there were over 940 million international tourist arrivals worldwide. By 2016 that number had risen to 1,235 million, producing 1,220 billion USD in destination spending. The COVID-19 crisis had significant negative effects on international tourism significantly slowing the overall increasing trend.

International tourism has significant impacts on the environment, exacerbated in part by the problems created by air travel but also by other issues, including wealthy tourists bringing lifestyles that stress local infrastructure, water and trash systems among others.

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