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**Historical Development of Egypt:**
– Evidence of rock carvings dates back to prehistoric times along the Nile terraces and in desert oases.
– A settled agricultural economy emerged around 6000 BCE along the Nile River.
– The Giza Necropolis is the oldest of the ancient Wonders and still exists.
– King Menes founded a unified kingdom around 3150 BCE, initiating millennia of dynastic rule.
– Egypt’s history includes periods like the Old Kingdom, First Intermediate Period, Middle Kingdom, and New Kingdom.

**Geography and Politics of Egypt:**
– Egypt spans northeast Africa and the Sinai Peninsula in southwest Asia, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, Sudan, and Libya.
– The majority of the population resides near the Nile River in urban areas.
– Egypt is a semi-presidential republic led by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi.
– The country has faced political unrest, with instances like the 2011 revolution and the overthrow of Hosni Mubarak.
– Egypt has been involved in armed conflicts with Israel and is an authoritarian government with a poor human rights record.

**Economic Overview of Egypt:**
– Egypt is a developing country with a diversified economy.
– It ranks as the third-largest economy in Africa.
– Egypt is a member of international organizations like the United Nations, Arab League, and African Union.
– The country is considered a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East, and the Muslim world.
– Economic milestones include the introduction of long-staple cotton and modernization efforts during the Muhammad Ali Dynasty.

**Egyptian Dynasties and Periods:**
– Various ruling dynasties like the Muhammad Ali Dynasty, Khedivate of Egypt, Sultanate of Egypt, and Kingdom of Egypt have shaped Egypt’s history.
– Transition periods like the Ottoman rule, British protectorate status, and the movement towards independence mark significant eras.
– Social changes under leaders like Nasser and Sadat influenced land reform, education, economic reforms, and alliances with global powers.

**Modern Political and Social Landscape:**
– Egypt transitioned to a military rule post the 1952 Revolution.
– The United Arab Republic with Syria, the Yom Kippur War, and economic reforms under Sadat are key events.
– Social changes under Nasser led to improved social mobility and education.
– Egypt’s strategic role in international conflicts and alliances, such as the shift from the Soviet Union to the US, have shaped its modern political landscape.
– Key events like the Suez Crisis, withdrawal from the United Arab Republic, and the lasting impact of the Emergency Law are significant in Egypt’s recent history.

Egypt (Wikipedia)

Egypt (Arabic: مصر Miṣr [mesˁr], Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [mɑsˤr]), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and the Sinai Peninsula in the southwest corner of Asia. It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Gaza Strip of Palestine and Israel to the northeast, the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, and Libya to the west. The Gulf of Aqaba in the northeast separates Egypt from Jordan and Saudi Arabia. Cairo is the capital and largest city of Egypt, while Alexandria, the second-largest city, is an important industrial and tourist hub at the Mediterranean coast. At approximately 100 million inhabitants, Egypt is the 14th-most populated country in the world, and the third-most populated in Africa.

Arab Republic of Egypt
جمهورية مصر العربية (Arabic)
Jumhūrīyat Miṣr al-ʻArabīyah
Anthem: "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady"
"بلادي، بلادي، بلادي"
(English: "My country, my country, my country")
and largest city
30°2′N 31°13′E / 30.033°N 31.217°E / 30.033; 31.217
Official languagesArabic
National languageEgyptian Arabic
See Religion in Egypt
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic under an authoritarian regime
• President
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
Mostafa Madbouly
House of Representatives
• Unification of Upper
and Lower Egypt
c. 3150 BC
• Fall of Memphis
343 BC
• Sultanate
• Muhammad Ali dynasty inaugurated
9 July 1805
28 February 1922
23 July 1952
• Republic declared
18 June 1953
18 January 2014
• Total
1,010,408 km2 (390,121 sq mi) (29th)
• Water (%)
• 2024 estimate
Neutral increase 111,247,248 (15th)
• 2017 census
Neutral increase 94,798,827
• Density
103.56/km2 (268.2/sq mi) (118th)
GDP (PPP)2024 estimate
• Total
Increase $1.899 trillion (18th)
• Per capita
Increase $17,614 (93rd)
GDP (nominal)2024 estimate
• Total
Decrease $347.594 billion (38th)
• Per capita
Decrease $3,225 (127th)
Gini (2017)Positive decrease 31.5
HDI (2022)Decrease 0.728
high (105th)
CurrencyEgyptian pound (LE/E£/£E) (EGP)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EGY)
• Summer (DST)
Driving sideright
Calling code+20
ISO 3166 codeEG
Internet TLD

Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage along the Nile Delta back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, agriculture, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, later adopting Islam from the seventh century onwards. Cairo became the capital of the Fatimid Caliphate in the tenth century, and of the Mamluk Sultanate in the 13th century. Egypt then became part of the Ottoman Empire in 1517, before its local ruler Muhammad Ali established modern Egypt as an autonomous Khedivate in 1867. The country was then occupied by the British Empire and gained independence in 1922 as a monarchy. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt declared itself a republic, and in 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which was dissolved in 1961. Egypt fought several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, and occupied the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967. In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords, which recognised Israel in exchange for its withdrawal from the Sinai. After the Arab Spring, which led to the 2011 Egyptian revolution and overthrow of Hosni Mubarak, the country faced a protracted period of political unrest; this included the election in 2012 of a brief, short-lived Muslim Brotherhood-aligned Islamist government spearheaded by Mohamed Morsi, and its subsequent overthrow after mass protests in 2013.

Egypt's current government, a semi-presidential republic led by president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi since he was elected in 2014, has been described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian and responsible for perpetuating the country's poor human rights record. Islam is the official religion of Egypt, and Arabic is its official language. The great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres (15,000 sq mi), where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About 43% of Egypt's residents live across the country's urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo, Alexandria and other major cities in the Nile Delta.

Egypt is considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, and a middle power worldwide. It is a developing country having a diversified economy, which is the largest in Africa, the 38th-largest economy by nominal GDP and 127th by nominal GDP per capita. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Arab League, the African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, World Youth Forum, and a member of BRICS.

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