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**History and Evolution of Buses:**
– The word ‘bus’ originates from the Latin term ‘omnibus’ and was first used in France in the early 19th century.
– The first mechanically propelled omnibus appeared in London in 1833, marking the beginning of regular intercity bus services.
– Steam buses and trolleybuses were significant developments in the 19th and early 20th centuries, offering alternatives to horse-drawn carriages.
– Motor buses gained popularity in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with notable advancements in design and manufacturing.
– Buses have transitioned from high-floor to low-floor designs, with variations in propulsion systems and configurations over time.

**Types and Designs of Buses:**
– Buses come in various formats, including single-decker, double-decker, articulated, bi-articulated, midibuses, and coaches.
– Accessibility features such as wheelchair ramps, wider entrances, and low-floor designs have become prevalent for easier access.
– Bus configurations have evolved from front-engine to mid- or rear-engine designs, with different axle arrangements based on the bus type.
– Guided buses, with technologies like mechanical, optical, or electromagnetic guidance, offer controlled alignment at stops.
– Liveries are used to identify operators, routes, and services, with buses often carrying advertising or key messages.

**Propulsion and Dimensions of Buses:**
– Diesel engines have been the primary power source for buses since the 1920s, but there is growing interest in electric, hybrid, fuel cell, and compressed natural gas buses.
– Buses vary in length and width based on regulations in different regions, with rear axle buses in the UK and EU up to 15 meters long.
– Early bus manufacturing evolved from carriage coach building, with integral designs like the Leyland National combining body and chassis.
– Globalization has led to bus manufacturing in various locations for cost advantages, with specialized builders focusing on specific bus uses.

**Uses and Specialized Bus Services:**
– Buses serve public transport needs, offering utilitarian fittings for transit services, while coaches cater to longer-distance travel with additional amenities.
– Bus rapid transit services may use bi-articulated or tram-style buses, operating on predetermined timetables or flexible schedules.
– Buses play a vital role in the tourism industry for sightseeing and tours, with specialized services like student transport, private charters, and tour buses.
– Private hire of buses from charter companies is common for events, group transportation, and entertainment purposes, including shuttle services for festivals and conferences.

**Global Impact and Specialized Bus Applications:**
– Buses have been developed worldwide based on local needs, climate, and road conditions, with influences from colonial associations.
– Innovative solutions have been implemented in some countries to overcome import restrictions and adapt bus designs.
– Bus expositions like Euro Bus Expo and Busworld Kortrijk showcase the latest vehicles and innovations in the industry.
– Retired buses are repurposed for non-transport uses, exported to other countries, or sent to wrecking yards for scrap, highlighting sustainability and reuse practices.

Bus (Wikipedia)

A bus (contracted from omnibus, with variants multibus, motorbus, autobus, etc.) is a road vehicle that carries significantly more passengers than an average car or van, but less than the average rail transport. It is most commonly used in public transport, but is also in use for charter purposes, or through private ownership. Although the average bus carries between 30 and 100 passengers, some buses have a capacity of up to 300 passengers. The most common type is the single-deck rigid bus, with double-decker and articulated buses carrying larger loads, and midibuses and minibuses carrying smaller loads. Coaches are used for longer-distance services. Many types of buses, such as city transit buses and inter-city coaches, charge a fare. Other types, such as elementary or secondary school buses or shuttle buses within a post-secondary education campus, are free. In many jurisdictions, bus drivers require a special large vehicle licence above and beyond a regular driving licence.

A New Routemaster double-decker bus, operating for Arriva London on London Buses route 73 (2015)
A New Flyer trolleybus operated by the Toronto Transit Commission in 1987

Buses may be used for scheduled bus transport, scheduled coach transport, school transport, private hire, or tourism; promotional buses may be used for political campaigns and others are privately operated for a wide range of purposes, including rock and pop band tour vehicles.

Horse-drawn buses were used from the 1820s, followed by steam buses in the 1830s, and electric trolleybuses in 1882. The first internal combustion engine buses, or motor buses, were used in 1895. Recently, interest has been growing in hybrid electric buses, fuel cell buses, and electric buses, as well as buses powered by compressed natural gas or biodiesel. As of the 2010s, bus manufacturing is increasingly globalised, with the same designs appearing around the world.

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