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**Etymology and Definitions:**
– The word ‘jungle’ originates from the Sanskrit word ‘jaṅgala’, meaning rough and arid.
– It entered the English language in the 18th century from the Hindustani word for forest.
– Variations of ‘jaṅgala’ have been transcribed as ‘jangal’, ‘jangla’, ‘jungal’, and ‘juṅgala’.
– An Anglo-Indian interpretation led to its association with dense tangled thickets.
– The term is common in languages of the Indian subcontinent and the Iranian Plateau.

**Wildlife in Jungles:**
– Jungles exist on all inhabited landmasses with diverse vegetation and climates.
– Defining the wildlife of jungles is complex due to the variety of vegetation and land types.
Wildlife in jungles cannot be straightforwardly categorized.

**Characteristics of Jungles:**
– Jungles are characterized by tangled vegetation hindering human movement.
– Rainforests have a more open understorey compared to jungles.
– Jungles form in areas where tropical forests have been disturbed.
– Monsoon forests and mangroves have dense understoreys, making movement difficult.
– Jungles typically form along rainforest margins due to increased light at ground level.

**Metaphorical Usage and Cultural Significance:**
– ‘Jungle’ is often used metaphorically to describe unruly or lawless situations.
– The term ‘The Law of the Jungle’ originates from Rudyard Kipling’s ‘The Jungle Book’.
– Jungles symbolize untamed nature, isolation, and threat in popular culture.
– The transition from ‘jungle’ to ‘rainforest’ reflects changing perceptions of tropical forests.
– Scholars analyze jungles within the context of hierarchical domination and cultural standards.

**Literary References and Controversies:**
– Historical Perspectives and Literary References provide insights into colonial perceptions and cultural representations related to jungles.
– Controversies and Critiques explore themes like colonization, environmental impact, and societal reflections associated with jungles.

Jungle (Wikipedia)

A jungle is land covered with dense forest and tangled vegetation, usually in tropical climates. Application of the term has varied greatly during the past recent century.

Jungle in Cambodia.
Jungle on Tioman Island, Malaysia
El Yunque National Forest is the only tropical rainforest in the U.S. National Forest Service
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