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**Historical Background**:
– Uganda is named after the Buganda kingdom and was colonized by the British in 1894.
– Various ethnic groups populated the region before Bantu and Nilotic groups arrived.
– Uganda gained independence in 1962 from the UK.
– Buganda Crisis (1962-1966) marked by tensions between Buganda and the central government.
– Precolonial Uganda had diverse ethnic groups like Bantu and Nilotic speakers.

**Geography and Natural Resources**:
– Uganda has diverse geography with volcanic hills, mountains, and lakes like Lake Victoria.
– Rich in natural resources including fertile agricultural land and oil reserves.
– Service sector dominates the economy, surpassing agriculture.
– Rich biodiversity with national parks and wildlife reserves attracting tourism.
– Lakes and rivers like Lake Kyoga and the Nile basin are significant geographical features.

**Population and Economy**:
– Population estimate of 49,283,041 in 2023 with a density of 157.1/km.
– HDI of 0.550 in 2022.
– Economy based on the Ugandan shilling, with a dominant service sector.
– 8.5 million people live in the capital city, Kampala.
– Uganda’s future depends on addressing governance and human rights issues.

**Political History and Power Struggles**:
– Post-independence politics marked by tribal conflicts and factional disputes.
– Obote’s consolidation of power and eventual conflict with the Buganda Kingdom.
– Factional conflicts within the UPC intensified by newcomers from DP and KY.
– Buganda’s crisis with the central government revealed power struggles.
– The regional influence of Buganda and the role of security forces intensified the power struggle.

**Government Structure and Foreign Relations**:
– President of Uganda serves as head of state and government.
– Parliament consists of the National Assembly with 449 members.
– Uganda is a member of the East African Community and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation.
– Diplomatic relations with various countries, including the United States.
– Uganda’s political system is a presidential republic with a vice-president and prime minister aiding in governance.

Uganda (Wikipedia)

Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda, is a landlocked country in East Africa. It is bordered to the east by Kenya, to the north by South Sudan, to the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, to the south-west by Rwanda, and to the south by Tanzania. The southern part includes a substantial portion of Lake Victoria, shared with Kenya and Tanzania. Uganda is in the African Great Lakes region, it lies within the Nile basin, and has a varied equatorial climate. As of 2024, it had a population of around 49 million, of which 8.5 million live in the capital and largest city, Kampala.

Republic of Uganda
Jamhuri ya Uganda (Swahili)
Official Name in Local Languages
Motto: "For God and My Country"
"Kwa Mungu na nchi yangu"
Anthem: "Oh Uganda, Land of Beauty"
and largest city
Official languages
Ethnic groups
(2014 census)
  • 13.7% Islam
  • 1.9% others / none
GovernmentUnitary dominant-party presidential republic
• President
Yoweri Museveni
Jessica Alupo
Robinah Nabbanja
• Dominion
9 October 1962
• Republic
9 October 1963
• Current constitution
8 October 1995
• Total
241,038 km2 (93,065 sq mi) (79th)
• Water (%)
• 2023 estimate
49,283,041 (31st)
• Density
157.1/km2 (406.9/sq mi) (75th)
GDP (PPP)2024 estimate
• Total
Increase $145.157 billion (88th)
• Per capita
Increase $3,222 (172nd)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $52.390 billion (90th)
• Per capita
Increase $1,163 (196th)
Gini (2016)Negative increase 42.0
HDI (2022)Increase 0.550
medium (159th)
CurrencyUgandan shilling (UGX)
Time zoneUTC+3 (EAT)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+256a
ISO 3166 codeUG
  1. +006 from Kenya and Tanzania.

Uganda is named after the Buganda kingdom, which encompasses a large portion of the south, including Kampala, and whose language Luganda is widely spoken; the official language is English. The region was populated by various ethnic groups, before Bantu and Nilotic groups arrived around 3,000 years ago. These groups established influential kingdoms such as the Empire of Kitara. The arrival of Arab traders in the 1830s and British explorers in the late 19th century, marked the beginning of foreign influence. The British established the Protectorate of Uganda in 1894, incorporating various kingdoms and setting the stage for future political dynamics. Uganda gained independence in 1962, with Milton Obote as the first prime minister. The 1966 Mengo Crisis, marked a significant conflict with the Buganda kingdom. Idi Amin's military coup in 1971 led to a brutal regime characterized by mass killings and economic decline, until his overthrow in 1979.

Yoweri Museveni's National Resistance Movement (NRM) took power in 1986, after a six-year guerrilla war. This brought stability and growth, but authoritarian practices and human rights abuses. The abolition of presidential term limits, allegations of electoral fraud and repression, have raised concerns about Uganda's democratic future. Museveni was elected president in the 2011, 2016 and 2021 general elections. Human rights issues, corruption, and regional conflicts, such as involvement in the Congo Wars and the struggle against the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), continue to challenge Uganda. Despite this, it has made progress in education and health, improving literacy and reducing HIV infection, though challenges in maternal health and gender inequality persist. The country's future depends on addressing governance and human rights, while leveraging its natural and human resources for sustainable development.

Geographically, Uganda is diverse, with volcanic hills, mountains, and lakes, including Lake Victoria, the world's second-largest freshwater lake. The country has significant natural resources, including fertile agricultural land and untapped oil reserves, contributing to its economic development. The service sector dominates the economy, surpassing agriculture. Uganda's rich biodiversity, with national parks and wildlife reserves, attracts tourism, a vital sector for the economy.

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