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**Historical Development of Scotland:**
– Etymology: Scotland derived from Scoti, Latin for Gaels, evolving from Scotia (land of Gaels).
– Prehistoric and Early History: Diverse cultures pre-Roman Empire, with hunter-gatherers around 12,800 years ago.
– Roman Influence: Limited Roman incorporation, incursions by Agricola in 79 AD, and construction of the Antonine Wall.
– Caledonia: Inhabitants, climate, and conflicts with Romans.
– Kingdom of Scotland: Political divisions, societal structures, Gaelic influence, Viking raids, and reign of Kenneth I.
– Wars of Scottish Independence: Succession crisis, Auld Alliance, key leaders, Battle of Bannockburn, and Declaration of Arbroath.
– Union of the Crowns: James VI’s ascension, Treaty of Perpetual Peace, and early modern period impact.

**Geography and Natural Features of Scotland:**
– Geographic Divisions: Highlands, Lowlands, and Southern Uplands.
– Physical Characteristics: Mountainous Highlands, lochs, indented coastlines, and notable islands like Mull and Skye.
– Caledonia: Mention of Dunkeld, Rohallion, Schiehallion, and the Great Conspiracy.
– Mainland Scotland: Borders with England, Atlantic Ocean to the west, and North Sea to the east.
– Proximity to Other Countries: Ireland 13 miles away, Norway 190 miles distant.

**Political and Social Evolution of Scotland:**
– Scottish Monarchy: Centralization under David I, territorial expansion, conflicts like Scottish-Norwegian War, and feudal grants.
– Treaty of Union: Agreed in 1706, Acts of Union in 1707, creation of the United Kingdom, and economic impacts.
Military and Political Unions: James VI’s inheritance, Cromwell’s influence, failed union attempts, and eventual Treaty of Union in 1707.
– Social and Economic Changes: Highland Clearances, intellectual and industrial growth, impact of Scottish Enlightenment, and emergence of the Scottish Labour Party.
– World Wars and Scotland Act 1998: Contributions to WWI, WWII challenges, establishment of a devolved Scottish Parliament under the Scotland Act 1998.

**Cultural Contributions and Developments in Scotland:**
– Industrial Revolution: Shift to steel shipbuilding, industrial challenges, and notable figures like James Clerk Maxwell.
– Literature and Arts: Acclaimed authors like Robert Louis Stevenson, artistic movements like the Glasgow School, and architectural influences of Charles Rennie Mackintosh.
– Contributions to Literature and Arts: Walter Scott’s cultural impact, role in art and architecture development.
– 21st Century Developments: Reestablishment of Scottish Parliament, SNP’s rise, independence referendum, post-Brexit dynamics, and legal debates on referendums.
– Industrial Age and the Scottish Enlightenment: Transformation, power positions in the British Empire, Scottish Reform Act, calls for Home Rule, and Scottish Prime Ministers.

**Modern Challenges and Contemporary Issues in Scotland:**
– 21st Century Developments: Reconstitution of Scottish Parliament, SNP’s majority, post-referendum devolution, Brexit implications, and legal battles on independence referendums.
– Wars and Conflicts: Historical conflicts with England, Covenanters, Wars of the Three Kingdoms, and Jacobitism.
– Social and Economic Changes: Impact of Highland Clearances, industrial and intellectual growth, Scottish Enlightenment, and emergence of the Scottish Labour Party.
– World Wars and Scotland Act 1998: Scottish contributions to WWI, WWII challenges, Clydebank Blitz, and establishment of a devolved Parliament.
– Modern Challenges: Post-Brexit dynamics, calls for independence referendums, and legal disputes over referendum rulings.

Scotland (Wikipedia)

Scotland (Scots: Scotland; Scottish Gaelic: Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It contains nearly one-third of the United Kingdom's land area, consisting of the northern part of the island of Great Britain and more than 790 adjacent islands, principally in the archipelagos of the Hebrides and the Northern Isles. To the south-east, Scotland has its only land border, which is 96 miles (154 km) long and shared with England; the country is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Sea to the north-east and east, and the Irish Sea to the south. The population in 2022 was 5,439,842 and accounts for 8% of the population of the UK. Edinburgh is the capital and Glasgow is the largest of the cities of Scotland.

Scotland (Scots)
Alba (Scottish Gaelic)
Anthem: various,
predominantly "Flower of Scotland"
Location of Scotland (dark green) – in Europe (green & dark grey) – in the United Kingdom (green)
Location of Scotland (dark green)

– in Europe (green & dark grey)
– in the United Kingdom (green)

55°57′11″N 3°11′20″W / 55.95306°N 3.18889°W / 55.95306; -3.18889
Largest cityGlasgow
55°51′40″N 4°15′00″W / 55.86111°N 4.25000°W / 55.86111; -4.25000
Official languages
Ethnic groups
Demonym(s)Scottish • Scots
GovernmentDevolved parliamentary legislature within a constitutional monarchy
• Monarch
Charles III
John Swinney
Parliament of the United Kingdom
• Secretary of StateAlister Jack
• House of Commons59 MPs (of 650)
LegislatureScottish Parliament
9th century (traditionally 843)
17 March 1328
3 October 1357
1 May 1707
19 November 1998
• Total
80,231 km2 (30,977 sq mi)
• Land
77,901 km2 (30,078 sq mi)
• 2022 census
Neutral increase 5,439,842
• Density
70/km2 (181.3/sq mi)
GVA2022 estimate
 • Total£165.7 billion
 • Per capita£30,419
GDP (nominal)2022 estimate
• Total
£211.7 billion
• Per capita
Gini (2020–23)Negative increase 33
HDI (2021)Increase 0.921
very high
CurrencyPound sterling (GBP£)
Time zoneUTC+0 (GMT)
• Summer (DST)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy (AD)
Driving sideleft
Calling code+44
ISO 3166 codeGB-SCT

The Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the 9th century. In 1603, James VI inherited the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Ireland, forming a personal union of the three kingdoms. On 1 May 1707 Scotland and England combined to create the new Kingdom of Great Britain, with the Parliament of Scotland subsumed into the Parliament of Great Britain. In 1999 a Scottish Parliament was re-established, and has devolved authority over many areas of domestic policy. The country has a distinct legal system, educational system, and religious history from the rest of the UK, which have all contributed to the continuation of Scottish culture and national identity. Scottish English and Scots are the most widely spoken languages in the country, existing on a dialect continuum with each other. Scottish Gaelic speakers can be found all over Scotland, however the language is largely spoken natively by communities within the Hebrides. The number of Gaelic speakers numbers less than 2% of the total population, though state-sponsored revitalisation attempts have led to a growing community of second language speakers.

The mainland of Scotland is broadly divided into three regions: the Highlands, a mountainous region in the north and north-west; the Lowlands, a flatter plain across the centre of the country; and the Southern Uplands, a hilly region along the southern border. The Highlands are the most mountainous region of the British Isles and contain its highest peak, Ben Nevis, at 4,413 feet (1,345 m). The region also contains many lakes, called lochs; the term is also applied to the many saltwater inlets along the country's deeply indented western coastline. The geography of the many islands is varied. Some, such as Mull and Skye, are noted for their mountainous terrain, while the likes of Tiree and Coll are much flatter.

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