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**Geography and Climate:**
– Morocco is located in the Maghreb region of North Africa with coastlines on the Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean.
– The country shares borders with Algeria and the disputed Western Sahara territory.
– The highest peak in Northern Africa is Toubkal at 4,167m.
– Morocco’s climate zones range from hot summer Mediterranean to hot desert, influenced by the Atlas Mountains and the Canary Current.
– Different regions like the Rif, Middle, and High Atlas Mountains have distinct climates, with the southeast being very dry.

**History and Dynasties:**
– Morocco has a rich history dating back to Paleolithic times, with evidence of human habitation around 315,000 years ago.
– Various dynasties like the Almoravid, Almohad, Idrisid, Saadi, and Alawi have played significant roles.
– Berber kingdoms, Roman annexation, Muslim conquests, and colonial periods have shaped Morocco’s historical narrative.
– From the Aterian culture to the Iberomaurusian and Beaker cultures, Morocco’s foundation and dynastic periods are diverse and complex.

**Culture and Biodiversity:**
– Morocco’s culture is a blend of Arab, Berber, African, and European influences, with Islam as the predominant religion.
– The country boasts a rich history of art, music, architecture, and cuisine known for its diverse flavors and spices.
– Moroccan architecture features intricate tile work and geometric patterns.
– Morocco is part of the Mediterranean basin, known for its biodiversity, including the critically endangered Barbary lion and macaque.

**Government and Politics:**
– Morocco is a unitary semi-constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system.
– The King of Morocco holds significant executive and legislative powers, with a bicameral legislature in place.
– Political developments include reforms, the establishment of opposition-led coalitions, and efforts towards autonomy in Western Sahara.
– The country’s ranking in the World Press Freedom Index and diplomatic relations with countries like Israel and Algeria are notable aspects of its political landscape.

**Colonial History and Post-Independence Events:**
– Morocco’s colonial history includes French and Spanish protectorates, leading to conflicts like the Rif uprising and the Western Sahara dispute.
– Post-independence events like King Mohammed V’s exile, independence in 1956, the Sand War, and the formation of the Polisario movement have been significant.
– Recent events like the autonomy blueprint for Western Sahara, diplomatic tensions, and agreements with Spain reflect Morocco’s ongoing political dynamics.
– Economic sectors like agriculture, mining, and tourism drive Morocco’s diverse economy, with reforms aimed at attracting foreign investment and boosting growth.

Morocco (Wikipedia)

Morocco, officially the Kingdom of Morocco, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It overlooks the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and has land borders with Algeria to the east, and the disputed territory of Western Sahara to the south. Morocco also claims the Spanish exclaves of Ceuta, Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, and several small Spanish-controlled islands off its coast. It has a population of roughly 37 million, the official and predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber; French and the Moroccan dialect of Arabic are also widely spoken. Moroccan identity and culture is a mix of Arab, Berber, African and European cultures. Its capital is Rabat, while its largest city is Casablanca.

Kingdom of Morocco
  • المملكة المغربية (Arabic)
    al-Mamlakah al-Maghribiyah
  • ⵜⴰⴳⵍⴷⵉⵜ ⵏ ⵍⵎⵖⵔⵉⴱ (Tamazight)
    Tageldit n Lmeɣrib
Motto: ٱللَّٰه، ٱلْوَطَن، ٱلْمَلِك 
"Allāh, al-Waṭan, al-Malik"
"ⵕⴱⴱⵉ, ⴰⵎⵓⵔ, ⴰⴳⵍⵍⵉⴷ"
"God, Country, King"
Anthem: ٱلنَّشِيْد ٱلْوَطَنِي 
"an-Našīd al-Waṭanīy"
"Cherifian Anthem"
Location of Morocco in northwest Africa Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco Lighter green: Western Sahara, a territory claimed and occupied mostly by Morocco as its Southern Provinces[a]
Location of Morocco in northwest Africa
Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco
Lighter green: Western Sahara, a territory claimed and occupied mostly by Morocco as its Southern Provinces
34°02′N 6°51′W / 34.033°N 6.850°W / 34.033; -6.850
Largest cityCasablanca
33°32′N 7°35′W / 33.533°N 7.583°W / 33.533; -7.583
Official languages
Spoken languages
Foreign languages
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary semi-constitutional monarchy
• King
Mohammed VI
Aziz Akhannouch
House of Councillors
House of Representatives
• 'Alawi dynasty (current dynasty)
30 March 1912
7 April 1956
• Total
446,550 km2 (172,410 sq mi) (57th)
• Water (%)
0.056 (250 km2)
• 2022 estimate
37,984,655 (38th)
• 2014 census
• Density
50.0/km2 (129.5/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $385.337 billion (56th)
• Per capita
Increase $10,408 (120th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $147.343 billion (61st)
• Per capita
Increase $3,979 (124th)
Gini (2015)40.3
HDI (2022)Increase 0.698
medium (120th)
CurrencyMoroccan dirham (MAD)
Time zoneUTC+1
UTC+0 (during Ramadan)
Driving sideright
Calling code+212
ISO 3166 codeMA
Internet TLD

The region constituting Morocco has been inhabited since the Paleolithic era over 300,000 years ago. The Idrisid dynasty was established by Idris I in 788 and was subsequently ruled by a series of other independent dynasties, reaching its zenith as a regional power in the 11th and 12th centuries, under the Almoravid and Almohad dynasties, when it controlled most of the Iberian Peninsula and the Maghreb. Centuries of Arab migration to the Maghreb since the 7th century shifted the demographic scope of the region. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Morocco faced external threats to its sovereignty, with Portugal seizing some territory and the Ottoman Empire encroaching from the east. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties otherwise resisted foreign domination, and Morocco was the only North African nation to escape Ottoman dominion. The 'Alawi dynasty, which rules the country to this day, seized power in 1631, and over the next two centuries expanded diplomatic and commercial relations with the Western world. Morocco's strategic location near the mouth of the Mediterranean drew renewed European interest; in 1912, France and Spain divided the country into respective protectorates, reserving an international zone in Tangier. Following intermittent riots and revolts against colonial rule, in 1956, Morocco regained its independence and reunified.

Since independence, Morocco has remained relatively stable. It has the fifth-largest economy in Africa and wields significant influence in both Africa and the Arab world; it is considered a middle power in global affairs and holds membership in the Arab League, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Union for the Mediterranean, and the African Union. Morocco is a unitary semi-constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The executive branch is led by the King of Morocco and the prime minister, while legislative power is vested in the two chambers of parliament: the House of Representatives and the House of Councillors. Judicial power rests with the Constitutional Court, which may review the validity of laws, elections, and referendums. The king holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs; he can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law, and can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the prime minister and the president of the constitutional court.

Morocco claims ownership of the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, which it has designated its Southern Provinces. In 1975, after Spain agreed to decolonise the territory and cede its control to Morocco and Mauritania, a guerrilla war broke out between those powers and some of the local inhabitants. In 1979, Mauritania relinquished its claim to the area, but the war continued to rage. In 1991, a ceasefire agreement was reached, but the issue of sovereignty remained unresolved. Today, Morocco occupies two-thirds of the territory, and efforts to resolve the dispute have thus far failed to break the political deadlock.

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