Cross-country skiing

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**History and Development**:
Skiing technique developed almost 5 millennia ago.
– Evidence of skiing in China as early as 600 BCE.
– Sami people described as ski runners around CE 550.
– Skis used for transportation evolved into a recreational activity in the mid-1800s.
– Ski warfare recorded in the 13th century.
– Norwegian immigrants introduced skis in the US Midwest around 1836.
– Norwegians introduced skiing in South America around 1890.
– Norwegian military skiing contests in the 18th century.
– Vladimir Lenin popularized skiing in the Soviet Union from 1919.

**Recreation and Touring**:
– Ski touring in untracked terrain.
– Recreational cross-country skiing includes ski touring and groomed-trail skiing.
– Accessible form of recreation for persons with vision and mobility impairments.
– Related form of recreation is dog skijoring.
– Ski touring takes place off-piste and outside of ski resorts.
– Tours may extend over multiple days.
– Ski mountaineering involves independently navigating through potential avalanche terrain.

**Competition and Events**:
– Cross-country ski competition formats vary in length.
– Sanctioned by International Ski Federation and national organizations.
– Includes cross-country ski marathon events and Paralympic cross-country skiing.
– Notable competitions include Winter Olympics and FIS World Cup events.
– Ski marathons have cup series like Ski Classics and Worldloppet.

**Techniques and Training**:
– Cross-country skiing has two basic propulsion techniques: classic and skate skiing.
– Classic technique relies on wax or texture on ski bottom for traction.
– Skate skiing involves sliding on alternating skis on a firm snow surface.
– Techniques like V1, V2, and marathon skate are common.
– Pole usage contributes to forward propulsion in both techniques.

**Equipment and Gear**:
– Equipment includes skis, poles, boots, and bindings.
– Various ski types cater to specific skiing styles and terrains.
– Glide waxes enhance ski speed and performance.
– Modern cross-country ski poles are made from aluminium, fibreglass-reinforced plastic, or carbon fibre.
– Proper equipment selection is crucial for optimal skiing experience.

Cross-country skiing is a form of skiing whereby skiers traverse snow-covered terrain without use of ski lifts or other assistance. Cross-country skiing is widely practiced as a sport and recreational activity; however, some still use it as a means of travel. Variants of cross-country skiing are adapted to a range of terrain which spans unimproved, sometimes mountainous terrain to groomed courses that are specifically designed for the sport.

Cross-country skiing
Cross-country skiers in western Norway.
NicknamesCross-country, XC skiing, Nordic skiing
TypeOutdoor winter sport
EquipmentSkis, poles, boots, bindings

Modern cross-country skiing is similar to the original form of skiing, from which all skiing disciplines evolved, including alpine skiing, ski jumping and Telemark skiing. Skiers propel themselves either by striding forward (classic style) or side-to-side in a skating motion (skate skiing), aided by arms pushing on ski poles against the snow. It is practised in regions with snow-covered landscapes, including Europe, Canada, Russia, the United States, Australia and New Zealand.

Competitive cross-country skiing is one of the Nordic skiing sports. Cross-country skiing and rifle marksmanship are the two components of biathlon. Ski orienteering is a form of cross-country skiing, which includes map navigation along snow trails and tracks.

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