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**Group 1: Bicycle History and Evolution**
– The word ‘bicycle’ first appeared in English in 1868 and was used in a French publication in 1847.
– The dandy horse by Karl von Drais and the mechanically propelled two-wheeled vehicle by Kirkpatrick MacMillan were early inventions.
– French inventors added pedals in the 1860s, leading to the development of the penny-farthing and safety bicycles.
– The bicycle has seen continual adaptation and improvement since the 1880s, with modern materials and specialized designs emerging.

**Group 2: Bicycle Impact and Significance**
– The bicycle has had a significant cultural and industrial impact on society.
– Components like ball bearings, pneumatic tires, and chain-driven sprockets were initially developed for bicycles.
– The bicycle played a role in advancing modern industrial methods and paved the way for automobile development.
– Specialized bicycle designs have proliferated with advancements in materials and technology.

**Group 3: Bicycle Types and Uses**
– Bicycles are used for transportation, commuting, utility, recreation, fitness, and various professional and military applications.
– Popular bicycle types include utility, mountain, racing, touring, hybrid, cruiser, BMX, tandem, and electric bicycles.
– Uncommon types like low riders, tall bikes, fixed gear, and recumbents cater to specific preferences.
– Bicycles are also used for sports activities like racing, BMX racing, track racing, and time trials.

**Group 4: Bicycle Technological Innovations**
– The basic shape of the upright bicycle has remained similar since the 1880s, with improvements in materials and design.
– Innovations like pneumatic tires, coaster brakes, derailleurs, and electric bicycles have enhanced functionality.
– Various types of cycling have led to specialized bicycle designs catering to different needs.
– Modern materials and computer-aided design have played a significant role in improving bicycle details.

**Group 5: Bicycle Mechanics and Performance**
– Bicycles are highly efficient in biological and mechanical terms, being the most efficient human-powered means of transportation.
– Up to 99% energy transmission from rider to wheels makes bicycles efficient in cargo transportation.
– Drag and aerodynamics significantly affect power output at different speeds, influencing performance.
– Materials like alloy steels, aluminum, carbon fiber, titanium, and bamboo are used in bicycle construction to enhance performance and reduce weight.

Bicycle (Wikipedia)

A bicycle, also called a pedal cycle, bike, push-bike or cycle, is a human-powered or motor-assisted, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, with two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other. A bicycle rider is called a cyclist, or bicyclist.

The most popular bicycle model—and most popular vehicle of any kind in the world—is the Chinese Flying Pigeon, with about 500 million produced.
Fuel sourceHuman-power (and/or motor-power)
ComponentsFrame, wheels, tires, saddle, handlebar, pedals, drivetrain
InventorKarl von Drais, Kirkpatrick MacMillan
Invented19th century
TypesUtility bicycle, mountain bicycle, racing bicycle, touring bicycle, hybrid bicycle, cruiser bicycle, BMX bike, tandem, low rider, tall bike, fixed gear, folding bicycle, amphibious cycle, cargo bike, recumbent, electric bicycle
Classic bell of a bicycle

Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century in Europe. By the early 21st century there were more than 1 billion bicycles. There are many more bicycles than cars. Bicycles are the principal means of transport in many regions. They also provide a popular form of recreation, and have been adapted for use as children's toys. Bicycles are used for fitness, military and police applications, courier services, bicycle racing, and artistic cycling.

The basic shape and configuration of a typical upright or "safety" bicycle, has changed little since the first chain-driven model was developed around 1885. However, many details have been improved, especially since the advent of modern materials and computer-aided design. These have allowed for a proliferation of specialized designs for many types of cycling. In the 21st century, electric bicycles have become popular.

The bicycle's invention has had an enormous effect on society, both in terms of culture and of advancing modern industrial methods. Several components that played a key role in the development of the automobile were initially invented for use in the bicycle, including ball bearings, pneumatic tires, chain-driven sprockets, and tension-spoked wheels.

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