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**Historical Background and Cultural Significance**:
– The term ‘Tajik’ originates from Middle Persian and Arabic ethnonym.
– Tajiks are descendants of Eastern Iranian peoples with a continuous presence in Central Asia.
– Cultures in Tajikistan date back to at least the fourth millennium BC.
– The Samanid Empire restored Persian control in the region.
– Tajikistan has a rich history under various empires and kingdoms like the Achaemenid Empire and the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom.
– Tajikistan has a diverse cultural heritage with a majority of Tajiks and a variety of languages spoken in regions like Gorno-Badakhshan.

**Geography and Administrative Divisions**:
– Tajikistan is a landlocked country in Central Asia.
– Dushanbe is the capital and most populous city.
– Mountains cover over 90% of the country.
– The country is divided into administrative divisions like Sughd, Khatlon, Gorno-Badakhshan, and the Region of Republican Subordination.
– Each region is further divided into districts, jamoats, and villages.

**Political History and Military Relations**:
– Tajikistan faced a civil war post-independence, leading to significant internal conflicts.
– President Emomali Rahmon has been in power since 1994.
– Russia and Iran played roles in maintaining peace in Tajikistan.
– Tajikistan has had military relations with countries like India and Russia.
– Security concerns have risen due to Islamic militarism, border conflicts, and the presence of armed forces from various nations.

**Economic Landscape and Transportation Infrastructure**:
– Tajikistan’s economy heavily relies on remittances, aluminium, and cotton exports.
– Key industries include aluminium production, cotton farming, and hydropower potential.
– Transportation in Tajikistan involves roads, air, and rail networks.
– Plans for infrastructure development include agreements with neighboring countries like Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan.
– The country’s road length, rail system, and airport infrastructure play crucial roles in domestic and international connectivity.

**Challenges and Security Concerns**:
– Tajikistan faces challenges like food insecurity and malnutrition.
– Conflict over water resources with neighboring countries has led to border clashes.
– Security concerns have risen due to the exit of foreign troops from Afghanistan and the rise of Islamic militarism.
– The country has sought help from organizations like the CSTO to address security challenges.
– Recent armed clashes along the border with Kyrgyzstan highlight ongoing security threats in the region.

Tajikistan (Wikipedia)

Tajikistan, officially the Republic of Tajikistan, is a landlocked country in Central Asia. Dushanbe is the capital and most populous city. Tajikistan is bordered by Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east. It is separated from Pakistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor.

Republic of Tajikistan
Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон (Tajik)
Motto: Истиқлол, Озодӣ, Ватан (Tajik)
Istiqlol, Ozodí, Vatan
"Independence, Freedom, Homeland"
Anthem: Суруди Миллӣ (Tajik)
Surudi Milli
"National Anthem"
Location of Tajikistan (green)
Location of Tajikistan (green)
and largest city
38°33′N 68°48′E / 38.550°N 68.800°E / 38.550; 68.800
Official languagesTajik (state)
Russian (interethnic)
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary presidential republic under an authoritarian dictatorship
• President
Emomali Rahmon
Kokhir Rasulzoda
LegislatureSupreme Assembly
National Assembly
Assembly of Representatives
5 December 1929
24 August 1990
31 August 1991
9 September 1991
26 December 1991
• Total
143,100 km2 (55,300 sq mi) (94th)
• Water
2,575 km2 (994 sq mi)
• Water (%)
• 2023 estimate
Increase 10,077,600 (92nd)
• Density
48.6/km2 (125.9/sq mi) (155th)
GDP (PPP)2024 estimate
• Total
Increase $59.415 billion (119th)
• Per capita
Increase $5,832 (145th)
GDP (nominal)2024 estimate
• Total
Increase $12.953 billion (141st)
• Per capita
Increase $1,271 (163th)
Gini (2015)34
HDI (2022)Increase 0.679
medium (126th)
CurrencySomoni (TJS)
Time zoneUTC+5 (TJT)
Date formatdd.mm.yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+992
ISO 3166 codeTJ
Internet TLD.tj
  1. Russian has the status of an official language through its use as the official interethnic language as cited in the Constitution of Tajikistan.

The territory was previously home to cultures of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age, including the city of Sarazm, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of faiths and cultures, including the Oxus civilization, Andronovo culture, Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, and Islam. The area has been ruled by empires and dynasties, including the Achaemenid Empire, Sasanian Empire, Hephthalite Empire, Samanid Empire, and Mongol Empire. After being ruled by the Timurid Empire and Khanate of Bukhara, the Timurid Renaissance flourished. The region was later conquered by the Russian Empire and subsequently by the Soviet Union. Within the Soviet Union, the country's borders were drawn when it was part of Uzbekistan as an autonomous republic before becoming a full-fledged Soviet republic in 1929.

On 9 September 1991, Tajikistan declared itself an independent sovereign nation as the Soviet Union was disintegrating. A civil war was fought after independence, lasting from May 1992 to June 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy to grow. The country has been led by Emomali Rahmon since 1994, who heads an authoritarian regime and whose human rights record has been criticised.

Tajikistan is a presidential republic consisting of four provinces. Tajiks form the ethnic majority in the country, and their national language is Tajik, a variety of Persian. Russian is used as the official inter-ethnic language. While the state is constitutionally secular, Islam is nominally adhered to by 96% of the population. In the Gorno-Badakhshan oblast, there is a linguistic diversity where Rushani, Shughni, Ishkashimi, Wakhi and Tajik are some of the languages spoken. Mountains cover more than 90% of the country. It is a developing country with a transitional economy that is dependent on remittances, and on production of aluminium and cotton. Tajikistan is a member of the United Nations, CIS, OSCE, OIC, ECO, SCO, CSTO and a NATO PfP partner.

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