Pamir Mountains

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**Geographical Features and Names**:
– Known as Pamir Ghrūna in Pashto, Rishta Kūhhoi Pomir in Tajik, Pāmir Kohistān in Urdu, Sumeru in Sanskrit, and Pamir Tooloru in Kyrgyz.
– Indo-European and Turkic languages have distinct names for the Pamir Mountains.
– A pamir is a flat plateau or U-shaped valley formed by glacier melt, used for summer pasture.
– The Pamirs are located between Central Asia and South Asia, bordering several mountain ranges.
– Major peaks include Ismoil Somoni Peak, Ibn Sina Peak, Korzhenevskaya, and Chinas Kongur Tagh.

**Economic Activities and Resources**:
– Economic activities in the Pamirs include coal mining in the west and sheep herding as a primary income source.
– Sheep herding has a significant impact on the region’s economy.
– The Pamirs also have a coal mining industry contributing to the economy.
– The region has gemstone-quality clinohumite deposits and is known for its lapis lazuli sources.
– The Pamirs were the location of the earliest evidence of human cannabis use.

**Exploration and Discoveries**:
– Notable expeditions include the Tartu Ülikool 350 Peak expedition and the German-Soviet expedition in 1928.
– Discoveries in the Pamirs include gem-quality materials, clinohumite deposits, and evidence of early human cannabis use.
– Mapping efforts have included the Fedchenko Glacier.
– The region has been explored for its strategic and economic significance.

**Transportation and Tourism**:
– The Pamir Highway is a critical route connecting the region and has historical ties to the Great Silk Road.
– The highway plays a vital role in regional transportation.
Tourism potential in the Pamir area has been recognized, with attractions like Ismoil Somoni Peak.
Tourism has had economic impacts on the region, with successful years like 2013.
– Development of the tourism sector is ongoing in the Pamir Mountains.

**Historical Significance and Cultural Symbolism**:
– The Pamirs have historical trade route significance and have been the site of territorial conquests and conflicts.
– The region’s strategic position has led to the establishment of military bases and resolution of disputes by China.
– The Pamirs hold religious symbolism as Mount Meru or Sumeru, with connections to Buddhist and Jain beliefs.
– Cultural and religious importance has been attributed to the Pamir Mountains throughout history.
– Various publications and historical expeditions have documented the significance and exploration of the Pamir region.

Pamir Mountains (Wikipedia)

The Pamir Mountains are a range of mountains between Central Asia and South Asia. They are located at a junction with other notable mountains, namely the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, Hindu Kush and the Himalaya mountain ranges. They are among the world's highest mountains.

Pamir Mountains
Pamir Mountains
Highest point
PeakKongur Tagh
Elevation7,649 m (25,095 ft)
Coordinates38°35′39″N 75°18′48″E / 38.59417°N 75.31333°E / 38.59417; 75.31333
CountriesTajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan, China and Pakistan
States/ProvincesGorno-Badakhshan, Osh Region, Wakhan, Chitral & Gilgit Baltistan, Pakistan and Xinjiang
Range coordinates38°30′N 73°30′E / 38.5°N 73.5°E / 38.5; 73.5

Much of the Pamir Mountains lie in the Gorno-Badakhshan region of Tajikistan. To the south, they border the Hindu Kush mountains along Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in Badakhshan Province, Chitral and Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan. To the north, they join the Tian Shan mountains along the Alay Valley of Kyrgyzstan. To the east, they extend to the range that includes China's Kongur Tagh, in the "Eastern Pamirs", separated by the Yarkand valley from the Kunlun Mountains.

Pamir as seen from the map, as well as the Amu Darya river which rises from the Pamir mountains north of the Hindu Kush and the Helmand River which is the longest river in the entire country of Afghanistan.

Since the Victorian era, they have been known as the "Roof of the World", presumably a translation from Persian.

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