South Pole

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**Geography and Exploration**
– The South Pole is the southernmost point on Earth, located on the continent of Antarctica.
– Earth’s axis of rotation intersects its surface at the South Pole.
– It is distinct from the South Magnetic Pole.
– Notable explorers include Captain John Davis, Charles Wilkes, Robert Falcon Scott, Roald Amundsen, and Richard Evelyn Byrd.
– The first landing on Antarctica was by Captain John Davis, while Amundsen was the first to reach the Geographic South Pole in 1911.

**Historic Monuments and Ceremonial South Pole**
– The Ceremonial South Pole is located near the Geographic South Pole and consists of a metallic sphere on a barber pole.
– It is set aside for photo opportunities and surrounded by flags of Antarctic Treaty signatory states.
– Historic monuments include Amundsen’s Tent, Argentine Flagpole, and markers repositioned annually.
– New marker stakes are designed each year at the South Pole Station.

**Climate and Environmental Conditions**
– The South Pole has one of the coldest climates on Earth, with an average temperature of -49.5°C.
– It receives very little precipitation and has near-zero air humidity.
– The region near the Vostok Station holds the record for the coldest place on Earth.
– The former dome at the Amundsen–Scott station is partially buried due to snowstorms.
– The South Pole resembles a desert with minimal precipitation and near-zero air humidity.

**Temperature, Precipitation, and Sunshine**
– In midsummer, high temperatures at the South Pole average around -25.9°C.
– The lowest temperature recorded at the South Pole was -82.8°C.
– The South Pole receives about 7cm of snow accumulation per year with an average of 203 snowy days.
– Mean monthly sunshine hours range from 0.0 to 616.9 hours.
– The South Pole has an ice cap climate with minimal precipitation.

**Time, Longitudes, and Unique Features**
– Local time at the South Pole is unique due to its location, with the Sun seen to rise and set only once per year.
– The South Pole experiences a phenomenon where the Sun is continuously above the horizon in summer.
– Longitudes do not determine time synchronously at the South Pole due to its unique geography.
– The South Pole has a distinct timekeeping system due to its position.
– The South Pole has a distinct timekeeping system due to its position.

South Pole (Wikipedia)

The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is the southernmost point on Earth and lies antipodally on the opposite side of Earth from the North Pole, at a distance of 20,004 km (12,430 miles) in all directions. It is one of the two points where Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface.

The Geographic South Pole is marked by the stake on the right
NASA image showing Antarctica and the South Pole in 2005

Situated on the continent of Antarctica, it is the site of the United States Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, which was established in 1956 and has been permanently staffed since that year. The Geographic South Pole is distinct from the South Magnetic Pole, the position of which is defined based on Earth's magnetic field. The South Pole is the center of the Southern Hemisphere.90°S 0°E / 90°S 0°E / -90; 0

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