Arctic exploration

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**Historical Arctic Exploration:**
– Ancient explorers like Pytheas and Viking sailors ventured into the Arctic.
Exploration during the Middle Ages by Erik the Red, Pomors, and Cossack Semyon Dezhnyov.
– Renaissance exploration driven by commercial expansion and advancements in cartography.
Exploration of the Northwest Passage and Northeast Passage by various expeditions.
– Notable achievements like Robert Peary’s disputed claim of reaching the North Pole in 1909.

**Notable Explorers and Expeditions:**
Exploration efforts by Sebastian Cabot, Sir Francis Cherry, and Vitus Bering.
– Notable Arctic explorers like Naddod, John Davis, and Henry Hudson.
– Modern achievements such as Ralph Plaisted’s snowmobile journey to the North Pole.
– Technological advancements like BBC’s Top Gear expedition and Russian crewed submersibles.
– Literary works and publications focusing on Arctic exploration and its impact.

**Arctic Exploration Vessels and Expeditions:**
– Mention of ships like HMS Discovery, HMS Erebus, and expeditions by Parry and Crozier.
– Notable explorers and their expeditions linked to specific vessels.
– Expeditions and explorers mentioned in relation to Arctic exploration.
– Arctic and Antarctic research stations and key figures involved in exploration.
– Historic polar images and resources available for research and exploration.

**Impact of Climate Change on Arctic Exploration:**
Exploration history impacted by climate change, like the Vikings’ abandonment of Greenland.
– Studies on climatic changes and their effects on Arctic exploration.
– Challenges faced by explorers in Arctic conditions due to climate.
– Significance of climate in the story of polar exploration.
Exploration during the Little Ice Age and its impact on the search for the Northeast Passage.

**Antarctic Exploration Operations:**
– Operations like Operation Deep Freeze and key figures in Antarctic exploration.
– Expeditions involving vessels such as HMS Erebus and notable Antarctic landmarks.
– Antarctic research stations and team members involved in exploration.
– Stations and landmarks in Antarctica like the Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station.
– Comparison of British exploration in the Arctic and Antarctic from 1845-1960.

Arctic exploration (Wikipedia)

Arctic exploration is the physical exploration of the Arctic region of the Earth. It refers to the historical period during which mankind has explored the region north of the Arctic Circle. Historical records suggest that humankind have explored the northern extremes since 325 BC, when the ancient Greek sailor Pytheas reached a frozen sea while attempting to find a source of the metal tin. Dangerous oceans and poor weather conditions often fetter explorers attempting to reach polar regions, and journeying through these perils by sight, boat, and foot has proven difficult.

The 10 °C (50 °F) mean isotherm in July line (in red) commonly defines the border of the Arctic region.
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