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**History and Early States of Mongolia:**
– Prehistoric Mongolia shows Upper Paleolithic art
– Introduction of horse-riding nomadism pivotal in Mongolian history
– Various cultures like Afanasevo, Andronovo, and Xiongnu contributed to development
– Scythians and Tocharians inhabited western Mongolia during Bronze Age
– Nomadic empires like Xiongnu and Xianbei rose to power
– Great Wall of China built to defend against Xiongnu raids
– Mongolia declared independence in 1911 and became a Soviet satellite state

**Mongolian Culture and Society:**
– Approximately 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic
– Horse culture integral to Mongolian identity
– Buddhism majority religion with a significant non-religious population
– Ethnic Mongols make up the vast majority of the population
– Mongolia a member of various international organizations

**Geography and Climate of Mongolia:**
– Mongolia landlocked in East Asia, bordered by Russia and China
– World’s most sparsely populated sovereign state
– Much of Mongolia covered by grassy steppe and Gobi Desert
– Ulaanbaatar is the capital and largest city
– Known as the Land of the Eternal Blue Sky
– Hot summers and extremely cold winters, with temperatures dropping to -30°C

**Modern History and Governance of Mongolia:**
– Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997
– Mongolia seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade groups
– Mongolia underwent a peaceful Democratic Revolution in 1990
– Mongolia declared independence in 1911 after the fall of the Qing dynasty
– Mongolia gained independence from China after the Russian Civil War

**Environmental and Wildlife Issues in Mongolia:**
– Climate change leading to desertification, natural disasters, and land degradation
– Deforestation expanding due to human recklessness, pests, disease, and fires
– Mongolia’s lands becoming more arid through desertification
– Unique species like the Eastern brook lamprey and Daurian crayfish in Mongolia
– Gobi rangelands fragile and easily destroyed by overgrazing
– Mongolia’s total population estimated to be around 3,000,251 people

Mongolia (Wikipedia)

Mongolia is a landlocked country in East Asia, bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south. It covers an area of 1,564,116 square kilometres (603,909 square miles), with a population of just 3.3 million, making it the world's most sparsely populated sovereign state. Mongolia is the world's largest landlocked country that does not border a closed sea, and much of its area is covered by grassy steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is home to roughly half of the country's population.

Anthem: Монгол улсын төрийн дуулал
Mongol ulsyn töriin duulal
"National Anthem of Mongolia"
and largest city
48°N 106°E / 48°N 106°E / 48; 106
Official languagesMongolian
Official scripts
Ethnic groups
Demonym(s)Mongolian, Mongol
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential republic
• President
Ukhnaagiin Khürelsükh
Luvsannamsrain Oyun-Erdene
Gombojavyn Zandanshatar
LegislatureState Great Khural
209 BC
• Completion of Qing dynasty conquest
29 December 1911
• Mongolian People's Republic established
26 November 1924
12 February 1992
• Total
1,564,116 km2 (603,909 sq mi) (18th)
• Water (%)
• 2020 estimate
3,227,863 (134th)
• Density
2.07/km2 (5.4/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $52.989 billion (124th)
• Per capita
Increase $15,087 (103rd)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $18.782 billion (136rd)
• Per capita
Increase $5,348 (115th)
Gini (2018)32.7
HDI (2022)Increase 0.741
high (96th)
CurrencyTögrög (MNT)
Time zoneUTC+7/+8
Date (CE)
Driving sideright
Calling code+976
ISO 3166 codeMN
Internet, .мон

The territory of modern-day Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the First Turkic Khaganate, the Second Turkic Khaganate, the Uyghur Khaganate and others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous land empire in history. His grandson Kublai Khan conquered China proper and established the Yuan dynasty. After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict, except during the era of Dayan Khan and Tumen Zasagt Khan. In the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism spread to Mongolia, being further led by the Manchu-founded Qing dynasty, which absorbed the country in the 17th century. By the early 20th century, almost one-third of the adult male population were Buddhist monks. After the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared independence, and achieved actual independence from the Republic of China in 1921. Shortly thereafter, the country became a satellite state of the Soviet Union. In 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was founded as a socialist state. After the anti-communist revolutions of 1989, Mongolia conducted its own peaceful democratic revolution in early 1990. This led to a multi-party system, a new constitution of 1992, and transition to a market economy.

Approximately 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic; horse culture remains integral. Buddhism is the majority religion (51.7%), with the nonreligious being the second-largest group (40.6%). Islam is the third-largest religious identification (3.2%), concentrated among ethnic Kazakhs. The vast majority of citizens are ethnic Mongols, with roughly 5% of the population being Kazakhs, Tuvans, and other ethnic minorities, who are especially concentrated in the western regions. Mongolia is a member of the United Nations, Asia Cooperation Dialogue, G77, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, Non-Aligned Movement and a NATO global partner. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade groups.

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