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**Geography and Biodiversity**:
– Located on the northern coast of South America.
– Bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, Brazil, Venezuela, and Suriname.
– Capital and largest city is Georgetown.
– Third-smallest sovereign state by area in mainland South America.
– Second-least populous sovereign state in South America.
– Kaieteur Falls is the world’s largest single-drop waterfall by volume.
– Guyana has the second highest percentage of forest cover in the world.
– The country can be divided into five natural regions.
– Mount Roraima is the highest mountain in Guyana.
– The climate is tropical and generally hot and humid.
– Guyana has one of the highest levels of biodiversity in the world.
– More than 80% of Guyana is still covered by forests.
– The country is home to six ecoregions.
– Guyana ranks third in the world for forest landscape integrity.
– The Guiana Shield region is little known and extremely rich biologically.
– Smithsonian Institution identified nearly 2,700 plant species in the region.
– Supports diverse animal life, including jaguars, tapirs, and giant otters.
– Over 800 bird species and rich reptile and amphibian faunas reported.
– Clean waters of Essequibo watershed home to diverse fish and aquatic invertebrates.
– Government of Guyana designated Kanashen Community-Owned Conservation Area.

– Before Colonisation: Guyana inhabited for millennia with nine indigenous tribes.
– Arawaks and Caribs migrated northward, with Arawaks settling throughout the region.
– Many practiced shifting agriculture alongside hunting.
– Colonial Period: Dutch established colonies in Pomeroon, Essequibo, Berbice, and Demerara.
– British assumed control in 1796, leading to the formation of British Guiana in 1831.
– Independence: Guyana achieved independence from the UK in 1966 and became a republic in 1970.
– Member of the Commonwealth with territorial disputes with Venezuela.
– Forbes Burnham of the Peoples National Congress Reform rose to power.
– Early residents practiced agriculture and had trade networks.
– Dutch established sugar plantations with labor from the Atlantic slave trade.
– Indians brought under indenture contracts after emancipation in 1838.
– Balatá production was once significant in Guyana.
– Nationalization policy enacted after independence from British rule.

– Economy undergoing transformation since discovery of crude oil in 2015.
– Economy grew by 49% in 2020.
– Guyana on course to become one of the largest per capita oil producers by 2025.
– Discovery of over 11 billion barrels of oil reserves since 2017.
– Ranked fourth-highest GDP per capita in the Americas.
– Main economic activities: agriculture, bauxite, gold mining, timber, seafood, oil, and gas.
– Major impact on GDP from crude oil reserves discovery in 2019.
– GDP growth rate of 86.7% in 2020.
– Preservation of forests key for international aid through REDD programmes.
– Exports include bauxite, sugar, rice, textiles, and gold.
– GDP: US$4.121 billion ($5,252 per capita, 2019 est.).
– Inflation rate: 5.03% (2021).
– Unemployment rate: 16.42% (2021).
– Arable land: 2% (2018 estimate).

**Politics and International Relations**:
– Guyana was elected three times as a member of the UN Security Council.
– In 1978, a total of 918 people died at the Jonestown mass murder-suicide.
– Cheddi Jagan of the PPP was elected as president in 1992.
– President Bharrat Jagdeo ratified the UNASUR Constitutive Treaty in 2010.
– President David A. Granger lost the snap elections in 2020.
– Former U.S. President Jimmy Carter visited Guyana to lobby for free elections in 1992.
– In 2012, Guyana received a $45 million reward from Norway for rainforest protection efforts.
– Guyana received a total of $250 million from Norway for protecting natural habitats.
– Guyana has been highlighted by various naturalists for its rich natural history.
– Guyana received $115 million of the total grant from Norway.
– Guyana and Norway collaboration for green development since 2009.
– Iwokrama International Centre for Rain Forest Conservation and Development established.
– Debt relief initiatives from international agencies since 1999.
– Japan, China, and Venezuela debt cancellation agreements with Guyana.
– Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative in 2006/7 wrote off US$611 million of Guyana’s debt.

**Etymology and Historic Sites**:
– Name Guyana comes from an indigenous Amerindian language meaning land of many waters.
– Co-operative in the official name refers to co-operative socialism.
– Oxford English Dictionary confirms the meaning of Guyana as land of many waters.
– The National Trust of Guyana has designated nine historic sites as national monuments.
– A referendum in neighboring Venezuela in 2023 voted on the annexation of the disputed Essequibo region.
– The vote passed with a 95% majority but with a low turnout.
– There were concerns of war between Guyana and Venezuela due to a military buildup.
– The results of the referendum were questioned by analysts.

Guyana (Wikipedia)

Guyana (/ɡˈɑːnə/ or /ɡˈænə/ ghy-A(H)N), officially the Co-operative Republic of Guyana, is a country on the northern coast of South America, part of the historic mainland British West Indies. Guyana is an indigenous word which means "Land of Many Waters". Georgetown is the capital of Guyana and is also the country's largest city. Guyana is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, Brazil to the south and southwest, Venezuela to the west, and Suriname to the east. With a land area of 214,969 km2 (83,000 sq mi), Guyana is the third-smallest sovereign state by area in mainland South America after Uruguay and Suriname, and is the second-least populous sovereign state in South America after Suriname; it is also one of the least densely populated countries on Earth. It has a wide variety of natural habitats and very high biodiversity. The country also hosts a part of the Amazon rainforest, the largest tropical rainforest in the world.

Co-operative Republic of Guyana
Motto: "One People, One Nation, One Destiny"
Anthem: "Dear Land of Guyana, of Rivers and Plains"
Location of Guyana (green) in South America (grey)
Location of Guyana (green)

in South America (grey)

and largest city
6°48′21″N 58°9′3″W / 6.80583°N 58.15083°W / 6.80583; -58.15083
Official languagesEnglish
Recognised regional languages
Vernacular languageGuyanese Creole
Other languages
Ethnic groups
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary republic with an executive presidency
• President
Irfaan Ali
Mark Phillips
Bharrat Jagdeo
Manzoor Nadir
Roxane George-Wiltshire
LegislatureNational Assembly
26 May 1966
• Republic
23 February 1970
• Joined CARICOM at the Treaty of Chaguaramas
1 August 1973
6 October 1980
• Total
214,969 km2 (83,000 sq mi) (83rd)
• Water (%)
• 2024 estimate
817,607 (166th)
• Density
3.502/km2 (9.1/sq mi) (239th)
GDP (PPP)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $48.514 billion (126th)
• Per capita
Increase $61,098 (24th)
GDP (nominal)2023 estimate
• Total
Increase $16.329 billion (135th)
• Per capita
Increase $20,564 (48th)
Gini (2007)Positive decrease 44.6
HDI (2022)Increase 0.742
high (95th)
CurrencyGuyanese dollar (GYD)
Time zoneUTC-4 (AST)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
Driving sideleft
Calling code+592
ISO 3166 codeGY

The region known as "the Guianas" consists of the large shield landmass north of the Amazon River and east of the Orinoco River known as the "land of many waters". Nine indigenous tribes reside in Guyana: the Wai Wai, Macushi, Patamona, Lokono, Kalina, Wapishana, Pemon, Akawaio and Warao. Historically dominated by the Lokono and Kalina tribes, Guyana was colonised by the Dutch before coming under British control in the late 18th century. It was governed as British Guiana with a mostly plantation-style economy until the 1950s. It gained independence in 1966 and officially became a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970. The legacy of British rule is reflected in the country's political administration and diverse population, which includes Indian, African, Indigenous, Chinese, Portuguese, other European, and various multiracial groups.

Guyana is the only mainland South American nation in which English is the official language. However, the majority of the population speak Guyanese Creole, an English-based creole language, as a first language. Guyana is part of the Anglophone Caribbean. It is part of the mainland Caribbean region maintaining strong cultural, historical, and political ties with other Caribbean countries as well as serving as the headquarters for the Caribbean Community (CARICOM). In 2008, the country joined the Union of South American Nations as a founding member.

In 2017, 41% of the population of Guyana lived below the poverty line. Guyana's economy has been undergoing a transformation since the discovery of crude oil in 2015 and commercial drilling in 2019, with its economy growing by 49% in 2020, making it, by some accounts, currently the world's fastest-growing economy. As it is said to have 11 billion barrels in oil reserves, the country is set to become one of the largest per capita oil producers in the world by 2025. The discovery of over 11 billion barrels of oil reserves off the coast of Guyana since 2017 is the largest addition to global oil reserves since the 1970s. Guyana is now ranked as having the fourth-highest GDP per capita in the Americas after the United States, Canada, and The Bahamas, and has been one of the countries with the most improvement in Human Development Index ranking since 2015. According to the World Bank in 2023, very significant poverty still exists and the country faces significant risks in structurally managing its growth.

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