Outdoor education

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**Concepts of Outdoor Education:**
Outdoor education encompasses learning in, about, and through the outdoors.
– It is synonymous with outdoor learning, outdoor school, forest schools, and wilderness education.
– Expeditionary education involves wilderness expeditions.
Outdoor education typically employs experiential education methods.
– It involves activities like biology field trips and museum visits, aiming to provide hands-on learning experiences.
– Key pioneers in outdoor education include Kurt Hahn and the Scouting movement.
– Organizations like the Association for Experiential Education and Wilderness Education Association support outdoor education.

**Aims and Benefits of Outdoor Education:**
– Aims include overcoming adversity, personal development, boosting self-confidence, problem-solving, and leadership skills.
– Programs focus on survival skills, teamwork, leadership, and understanding natural environments.
Outdoor education aims to create a deeper sense of place in a community, crucial for environmentalism.
– Benefits include improved academic skills, reduced discipline issues, enhanced social interactions, and problem-solving abilities.
Outdoor education has shown positive effects on self-concept, leadership, and communication skills.

**Historical and Global Perspectives:**
– Modern outdoor education began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in various countries.
– The second half of the 20th century saw rapid global growth in outdoor education.
– It is prevalent in the UK, US, Australia, New Zealand, Europe, Asia, and Africa.
– Different countries implement outdoor education based on cultural context.
– Specific countries like the UK, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, Denmark, and Finland have unique approaches to outdoor education.

**Philosophy and Theory of Outdoor Education:**
Outdoor education emphasizes the impact of natural environments on human beings.
– Stress and challenge play an educative role in outdoor education.
– Experiential learning is a core aspect of outdoor education.
– Participants in outdoor education experience a raw connection with nature and break free from social norms.
– Philosophical roots include figures like John Dewey, Aldo Leopold, and William James.

**Research, Policies, and Key Figures in Outdoor Education:**
Research highlights the positive impact of outdoor education on student learning and behavior.
– Key figures like Kurt Hahn, Bear Grylls, and Richard Louv have made significant contributions.
– Organizations like Outward Bound, National Outdoor Leadership School, and Forest School promote outdoor education.
– Policies in various countries support outdoor learning initiatives.
– Studies show benefits in areas like critical thinking skills, personal effectiveness, and closing achievement gaps.

Outdoor education (Wikipedia)

Outdoor education is organized learning that takes place in the outdoors, typically during school camping trips. Outdoor education programs sometimes involve residential or journey wilderness-based experiences in which students participate in a variety of adventurous challenges and outdoor activities such as hiking, climbing, canoeing, ropes courses and group games. Outdoor education draws upon the philosophy, theory, and practices of experiential education and environmental education.

An outdoor visual arts class going on in National College of Arts, Pakistan
A group of Outward Bound participants with physical disabilities after completing a ropes course, c. 1996.
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