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Geography and Topography
– Idaho is the 14th largest state in the U.S. by land area.
– Population of approximately 1.8 million ranks Idaho as the 13th least populous state.
– Idaho is the 7th least densely populated state.
– Divided into distinct geographic and climatic regions.
– Contains stretches of the Rocky Mountains.
– Idaho shares borders with 6 U.S. states and 1 Canadian province.
– Washington and Oregon are to the west.
– Nevada and Utah are to the south.
– Montana and Wyoming are to the east.
– Idaho shares a border with British Columbia to the north.
– Idaho’s topography includes mountains, forests, and plateaus.
– The Rocky Mountains extend into the state.
– The Snake River Plain is a significant geographical feature.
– The Sawtooth Range is a popular outdoor recreation destination.
– The state has numerous rivers, lakes, and reservoirs.

– Major industries include manufacturing, agriculture, mining, forestry, and tourism.
– Home to the Idaho National Laboratory, the largest Department of Energy facility in the U.S.
– Idaho’s agricultural sector is known for its potato crop.
– State economy includes science and technology firms.
– Idaho is nicknamed the Gem State.
– Idaho’s economy is diverse, with agriculture being a key sector.
– Technology, manufacturing, and tourism also contribute significantly.
– The state is known for potato production.
– Boise, the capital, is a hub for business and innovation.
– Idaho has a growing wine industry.

History and Statehood
– Evidence of human activity in Idaho dates back 14,500 years.
– Nez Percé and Shoshone were predominant American Indian peoples.
– French-Canadian trappers had early presence in Idaho.
– Idaho was claimed by both the U.S. and Great Britain until 1846.
– Idaho achieved statehood in 1890.
– Idaho faced challenges during its territorial period.
– Chaotic transfer of territorial capital from Lewiston to Boise.
– Disenfranchisement of Mormon polygamists upheld by the U.S. Supreme Court.
– Idaho was hit hard by the Great Depression.
– Idaho has expanded its commercial base to include science and technology industries.

– Origin of Idaho’s name remains a mystery.
– Suggested by George M. Willing in the early 1860s.
– Claimed to be derived from a Shoshone term.
– U.S. Congress ultimately named the area Colorado Territory.
– Idaho Territory was created in 1863.

Natural Areas and Climate
– Idaho has some of the largest unspoiled natural areas in the U.S.
– The rugged landscape is a prominent feature.
– The state boasts diverse ecosystems.
– National parks and forests are abundant.
Outdoor recreational opportunities are plentiful.
– Idaho experiences a continental climate.
– Summers are generally hot and dry.
– Winters are cold with significant snowfall.
– Temperature variations between day and night are common.
– The state enjoys over 200 sunny days per year on average.

Idaho (Wikipedia)

Idaho (/ˈdəh/ EYE-də-hoh) is a landlocked state in the Mountain West subregion of the United States. It shares a small portion of the Canada–United States border to the north, with the province of British Columbia. It borders Montana and Wyoming to the east, Nevada and Utah to the south, and Washington and Oregon to the west. The state's capital and largest city is Boise. With an area of 83,569 square miles (216,440 km2), Idaho is the 14th largest state by land area. With a population of approximately 1.8 million, it ranks as the 13th least populous and the 7th least densely populated of the 50 U.S. states.

The Gem State (official), The Potato State
Esto perpetua (Latin for "Let it be perpetual")
Anthem: "Here We Have Idaho"
Map of the United States with Idaho highlighted
Map of the United States with Idaho highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodOregon Territory, Washington Territory, Idaho Territory
Admitted to the UnionJuly 3, 1890 (43rd)
(and largest city)
Largest county or equivalentAda
 • GovernorBrad Little (R)
 • Lieutenant GovernorScott Bedke (R)
 • Upper houseSenate
 • Lower houseHouse of Representatives
JudiciaryIdaho Supreme Court
U.S. senatorsMike Crapo (R)
Jim Risch (R)
U.S. House delegation1. Russ Fulcher (R)
2. Mike Simpson (R) (list)
 • Total83,569 sq mi (216,443 km2)
 • Land82,643 sq mi (214,045 km2)
 • Water926 sq mi (2,398 km2)  1.11%
 • Rank11th
 • Length479 mi (771 km)
 • Width305 mi (491 km)
5,000 ft (1,520 m)
Highest elevation12,662 ft (3,859 m)
Lowest elevation
(Confluence of Snake and Clearwater River; Lewiston)
713 ft (217 m)
 • Total1,964,726
 • Rank38th
 • Density23.63/sq mi (8.33/km2)
  • Rank44th
 • Median household income
 • Income rank
 • Official languageEnglish
Time zones
primaryUTC−07:00 (Mountain)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−06:00 (MDT)
Idaho PanhandleUTC−08:00 (Pacific)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−07:00 (PDT)
USPS abbreviation
ISO 3166 codeUS-ID
Latitude42° N to 49° N
Longitude111°03′ W to 117°15′ W
State symbols of Idaho
List of state symbols
Living insignia
AmphibianTiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum)
FishCutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii)
FlowerSyringa (Philadelphus lewisii)
Horse breedAppaloosa
InsectMonarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus)
TreeWestern white pine (Pinus monticola)
Inanimate insignia
DanceSquare dance
FossilHagerman horse (Equus simplicidens)
GemstoneStar garnet
State route marker
Route marker
Lists of United States state symbols

For thousands of years, and prior to European colonization, Idaho has been inhabited by native peoples. In the early 19th century, Idaho was considered part of the Oregon Country, an area of dispute between the U.S. and the British Empire. It officially became a U.S. territory with the signing of the Oregon Treaty of 1846, but a separate Idaho Territory was not organized until 1863, instead being included for periods in Oregon Territory and Washington Territory. Idaho was eventually admitted to the Union on July 3, 1890, becoming the 43rd state.

Forming part of the Pacific Northwest (and the associated Cascadia bioregion), Idaho is divided into several distinct geographic and climatic regions. The state's north, the relatively isolated Idaho Panhandle, is closely linked with Eastern Washington, with which it shares the Pacific Time Zone—the rest of the state uses the Mountain Time Zone. The state's south includes the Snake River Plain (which has most of the population and agricultural land), and the southeast incorporates part of the Great Basin. Idaho is quite mountainous and contains several stretches of the Rocky Mountains. The United States Forest Service holds about 38% of Idaho's land, the highest proportion of any state.

Industries significant for the state economy include manufacturing, agriculture, mining, forestry, and tourism. Several science and technology firms are either headquartered in Idaho or have factories there, and the state also contains the Idaho National Laboratory, which is the country's largest Department of Energy facility. Idaho's agricultural sector supplies many products, but the state is best known for its potato crop, which comprises around one-third of the nationwide yield. The official state nickname is the "Gem State."

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