Travel visa

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**1. Visa Types and Categories:**
– Visas are categorized based on their purpose of travel such as tourist visas, transit visas, and press visas.
– Different visas have varying limitations and requirements for tourism, business, work, study, or transit purposes.
– Common types of visas include short-stay or visitor visas, long-stay visas, immigrant visas, and official visas.
– Special visa agreements exist between countries, like the US Visa Waiver Program or the ASEAN Countries’ Visa Exemption.
– Visa policies may vary based on economic status, democracy level, and conflict exposure of the target country.

**2. Visa Application and Issuance:**
– Visas can be granted on arrival or by prior application at embassies or consulates.
– Some countries offer electronic visas applied for online, with restrictions like limited ports of entry.
– Visa fees may vary based on embassy discretion, expedited processing, and additional charges for multiple entries.
– Visa issuance can have restrictions like limited ports of entry, single-entry, double-entry, or multiple-entry options.
– Overstaying a visa can lead to fines, deportation, or blacklisting.

**3. Visa Extension and Renewal:**
– Many countries allow visa holders to apply for extensions or residence permits.
– Some countries lack mechanisms for visa extensions, and short-stay visas are not for long-term stays.
– Visa validity may differ from the authorized stay period, and extensions are possible in many countries for a fee.
– In the UK, applications can be made to UK Visas and Immigration for extensions.
– Denmark allows visa holders to apply for a Residence Permit.

**4. Reasons for Visa Rejection and Refusal:**
– Applicants may be refused visas for not meeting entry requirements like lack of financial support or medical insurance.
– Reasons for visa refusal include fraud, criminal records, or security threats.
– Good moral character, legitimate reasons for the journey, and strong ties to the applicant’s country are essential for visa approval.
– Previous visa violations can lead to visa refusal, and passport expiration too soon can be a reason for rejection.
– Intention to reside or work permanently in the destination country can also lead to visa rejection.

**5. Visa Reciprocity and Policies:**
– Visa reciprocity may exist based on other countries’ visa requirements, issuance fees, duration, and entry restrictions.
– Some countries offer specific visa policies for citizens of certain regions or organizations.
– Visa policies may vary for different categories of travelers, and administrative entry restrictions can include visa-free entry or advance visa requirements.
– Visa restrictions are imposed for reasons like illegal immigration, security concerns, and reciprocity.
– Different visa regimes exist among countries, including electronic visas and limited visa on arrival locations.

Travel visa (Wikipedia)

A visa (from Latin charta visa 'paper that has been seen') is a conditional authorization granted by a polity to a foreigner that allows them to enter, remain within, or leave its territory. Visas typically include limits on the duration of the foreigner's stay, areas within the country they may enter, the dates they may enter, the number of permitted visits, or if the individual can work in the country in question. Visas are associated with the request for permission to enter a territory and thus are, in most countries, distinct from actual formal permission for an alien to enter and remain in the country. In each instance, a visa is subject to entry permission by an immigration official at the time of actual entry and can be revoked at any time. Visa evidence most commonly takes the form of a sticker endorsed in the applicant's passport or other travel document but may also exist electronically. Some countries no longer issue physical visa evidence, instead recording details only in immigration databases.

A United States visa issued in 2014

Historically, immigration officials were empowered to permit or reject entry of visitors on arrival at the frontiers. If permitted entry, the official would issue a visa, when required, which would be a stamp in a passport. Today, travellers wishing to enter another country must often apply in advance for what is also called a visa, sometimes in person at a consular office, by post, or over the Internet. The modern visa may be a sticker or a stamp in the passport, an electronic record of the authorization, or a separate document which the applicant can print before entering and produce on entry to the visited polity. Some countries do not require visitors to apply for a visa in advance for short visits.

Visa applications in advance of arrival give countries a chance to consider the applicant's circumstances, such as financial security, reason for travel, and details of previous visits to the country. Visitors may also be required to undergo and pass security or health checks upon arrival at the port of entry.

Some polities which restrict emigration require individuals to possess an exit visa to leave the polity. These exit visas may be required for citizens, foreigners, or both, depending on the policies of the polity concerned. Unlike ordinary visas, exit visas are often seen as an illegitimate intrusion on individuals' right to freedom of movement. The imposition of an exit visa requirement may be seen to violate customary international law, as the right to leave any country is provided for in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

Uniquely, the Norwegian special territory of Svalbard is an entirely visa-free zone under the terms of the Svalbard Treaty. Some countries—such as those in the Schengen Area—have agreements with other countries allowing each other's citizens to travel between them without visas. In 2015, the World Tourism Organization announced that the number of tourists requiring a visa before travelling was at its lowest level ever.

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