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**Historical Evolution**:
– Tuscany’s rich history dates back to the pre-Etruscan era and the dominance of the Etruscans.
– Roman influence and developments in Tuscany, followed by the medieval period marked by conflicts and growth.
– The Renaissance period, characterized by the flourishing of art and culture, particularly in Florence.
– Transition into the modern era, including the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Kingdom of Italy, and post-World War II cultural growth.

**Art and Culture**:
– Tuscany’s renowned artistic heritage, with a focus on cities like Florence and Siena.
– The concentration of Renaissance art and the presence of notable artists like Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo in Tuscany.
– The influence of various art schools in Tuscany, such as the Florentine, Sienese, Pisan, and Lucchese schools.
– Tuscany’s contribution to literature, music, and language, with figures like Dante Alighieri and a rich musical tradition.

**Culinary Traditions**:
– The simplicity and richness of Tuscan cuisine, featuring ingredients like legumes, olive oil, truffles, and high-quality beef.
– Culinary specialties unique to Tuscany, such as white truffles from San Miniato and olive oil from specific olive varieties.
– Tuscany’s culinary reputation and the use of local ingredients in traditional dishes.

**Economic Landscape**:
– Tuscany’s economic indicators, including its GDP, GDP per capita, and GDP per employee compared to EU averages.
– The unemployment rate in Tuscany and its variations across different areas and provinces.
– The role of agriculture and industry in Tuscany’s economy, with a focus on traditional and craft industries, as well as notable sectors like marble and paper production.

**Tourism and Other Aspects**:
Tourism in Tuscany, with a significant demand in cities of art and seaside resorts, as well as picturesque villages and rural areas.
– The recognition of Tuscany’s villages in various associations and its diverse tourist attractions.
– Tuscany’s postal history, including its production of prized postage stamps and its integration into the Italian postal system.

Tuscany (Wikipedia)

Tuscany (/ˈtʌskəni/ TUSK-ə-nee, Italian: Toscana, Italian: [toˈskaːna]) is a region in central Italy with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres (8,900 square miles) and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants. The regional capital is Florence (Firenze).

Toscana (Italian)
Toscana (Tuscan)
Coat of arms of Tuscany
 • TypePresident–council
 • BodyRegional Cabinet
 • PresidentEugenio Giani (PD)
 • LegislatureRegional Council
 • Total22,985 km2 (8,875 sq mi)
 (31 December 2019)
 • Total3,722,729
 • Density160/km2 (420/sq mi)
Demonym(s)English: Tuscan
Italian: Toscano (man)
Italian: Toscana (woman)
 • Italian90%
 • Total€114.615 billion (2021)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 codeIT-52
HDI (2021)0.909
very high6th of 21

Tuscany is known for its landscapes, history, artistic legacy, and its influence on high culture. It is regarded as the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance and of the foundations of the Italian language. The prestige established by the Tuscan dialect's use in literature by Dante Alighieri, Petrarch, Giovanni Boccaccio, Niccolò Machiavelli and Francesco Guicciardini led to its subsequent elaboration as the language of culture throughout Italy. It has been home to many figures influential in the history of art and science, and contains well-known museums such as the Uffizi and the Palazzo Pitti. Tuscany is also known for its wines, including Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Morellino di Scansano, Brunello di Montalcino and white Vernaccia di San Gimignano. Having a strong linguistic and cultural identity, it is sometimes considered "a nation within a nation".

Tuscany is the second-most-popular Italian region for travellers in Italy, after Veneto. The main tourist spots are Florence, Castiglione della Pescaia, Pisa, San Gimignano, Lucca, Grosseto and Siena. The town of Castiglione della Pescaia is the most visited seaside destination in the region, with seaside tourism accounting for approximately 40% of tourist arrivals. The Maremma region, Siena, Lucca, the Chianti region, Versilia and Val d'Orcia are also internationally renowned and particularly popular spots among travellers.

Eight Tuscan localities have been designated World Heritage Sites: the historic Centre of Florence (1982); the Cathedral square of Pisa (1987); the historical centre of San Gimignano (1990); the historical centre of Siena (1995); the historical centre of Pienza (1996); the Val d'Orcia (2004), the Medici Villas and Gardens (2013), and Montecatini Terme as part of the Great Spa Towns of Europe (2021). Tuscany has over 120 protected nature reserves, making Tuscany and its capital Florence popular tourist destinations. In 2018, Florence alone had over 5 million arrivals, making it the world's 51st most visited city.

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