Travel medicine

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Globalization and travel:
– Globalization spreads diseases and increases exposure to different health environments
– Key areas of travel medicine include global epidemiology, vaccinology, malaria prevention, and pre-travel counseling
– Approximately 80 million travelers annually go from developed to developing countries
Travel medicine aims to maintain the health of international travelers
– Major concern is the health risks to travelers

Mortality and morbidity:
– Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death during travel (50–70%)
– Injury and accidents account for around 25% of travel-related deaths
– Infectious diseases cause about 2.8–4% of deaths during travel
– Nearly half of travelers from developed countries staying a month in developing countries get sick
– Traveler’s diarrhea is the most common issue encountered

Travel medicine covers epidemiology, infectious disease, public health, and various other disciplines
– Special itineraries include cruise ship travel, diving, mass gatherings, and wilderness/remote regions travel
– Divided into prevention, assistance, wilderness medicine, and access to healthcare
– Encompasses a wide range of medical specialties related to travel health
– Addresses health needs specific to various travel activities and locations

Travel medicine involves pre-travel consultation, contingency planning, and post-travel follow-up
– WHO provides health information for travelers in each country and specific risks of air travel
– CDC offers valuable and updated information for travelers
– Key considerations include vaccination and the “seven Is” (Insects, Ingestions, Indiscretion, Injuries, Immersion, Immunization, Insurance)
– Ensures travelers are prepared for health risks before, during, and after travel

Specific disease problems:
– Yellow fever is endemic in certain areas of Africa and South America
– Meningococcal meningitis is prevalent in the tropical meningococcal belt of Africa
– Malaria prevention involves mosquito exposure prevention and chemoprophylaxis
– Travelers should carry a medication kit with necessary medications
– Common medical problems for travelers include diarrhea, respiratory issues, wounds, and pain

Travel medicine (Wikipedia)

Travel medicine or emporiatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the prevention and management of health problems of international travelers.

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