Mount Everest

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I. Name and History
– Mount Everest was first proposed in a 1856 speech.
– Known as Qomolangma in Tibetan and Zhūmùlǎngmǎ Fēng in Chinese.
– Other names include Deodungha, Gauri Shankar, and Sagarmāthā.
– Peak XV named after Sir George Everest.
– Surveys started in 1802 by the British.
– Detailed observations of Himalayan peaks began in 1847.
– Initially, Kangchenjunga was considered the highest peak.

II. Climbing and Measurements
– Earth’s highest mountain above sea level.
– Attracts climbers from around the world.
– Two main climbing routes from Nepal and Tibet.
– 310 deaths on Everest as of November 2022.
– Height measurements: 8,848.86m (29,031.7ft) in 2020.
– Plate tectonics contribute to Everest’s height increase.

III. Geological Formation and Heritage
– Rocks divided into Qomolangma, North Col, and Rongbuk formations.
– Faulted southward during India-Asia collision.
– Ordovician Rocks listed as a geological heritage site.
– Recognized by the International Union of Geological Sciences.
– Contribution to the development of geological sciences.

IV. Environment and Climate
– Ice cap climate with extreme cold temperatures and high winds.
– Permanent snow and ice cover.
– Rapidly changing weather conditions.
– Flora includes moss, alpine plants, and fauna like yaks.
– Vegetation expansion based on satellite data.

V. Human Exploration and Meteorology
– First summited in 1953 by Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay.
– Thousands of climbers have attempted the summit.
Climbing season typically in May.
– Risks include altitude sickness and avalanches.
– Meteorological data: Summit atmospheric pressure at 33.7 kilopascal.
– Establishment of weather station at 8,000m elevation in 2008.

Mount Everest (Wikipedia)

Mount Everest is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas. The China–Nepal border runs across its summit point. Its elevation (snow height) of 8,848.86 m (29,031 ft 8+12 in) was most recently established in 2020 by the Chinese and Nepali authorities.

Mount Everest
Aerial photo from the south, with Mount Everest rising above the ridge connecting Nuptse and Lhotse
Highest point
Elevation8,848.86 m (29,031.7 ft) Edit this on Wikidata
Ranked 1st
Prominence8,848.86 m (29,031.7 ft) Edit this on Wikidata
Ranked 1st
(Special definition for Everest)
Coordinates27°59′18″N 86°55′31″E / 27.98833°N 86.92528°E / 27.98833; 86.92528
EtymologyGeorge Everest
Native name
  • सगरमाथा (Nepali) (Sagarmāthā)
  • ཇོ་མོ་གླང་མ (Standard Tibetan) (Chomolungma)
  • 珠穆朗玛峰 (Chinese) (Zhūmùlǎngmǎ Fēng)
English translationHoly Mother, Skyhead
Mount Everest is located in Nepal
Mount Everest
Mount Everest
Location on the border between Koshi Province, Nepal and Tibet Autonomous Region, China
Mount Everest is located in Koshi Province
Mount Everest
Mount Everest
Mount Everest (Koshi Province)
Mount Everest is located in China
Mount Everest
Mount Everest
Mount Everest (China)
Mount Everest is located in Tibet
Mount Everest
Mount Everest
Mount Everest (Tibet)
Mount Everest is located in Asia
Mount Everest
Mount Everest
Mount Everest (Asia)
LocationSolukhumbu District, Koshi Province, Nepal;
Tingri County, Xigazê, Tibet Autonomous Region, China
CountriesChina and Nepal
Parent rangeMahalangur Himal, Himalayas
First ascent29 May 1953
Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay
Ranked 1st
Normal routeSoutheast ridge (Nepal)
North Face of Everest as seen from the path to North Base Camp
Everest and Lhotse from the south: in the foreground are Thamserku, Kangtega, and Ama Dablam

Mount Everest attracts many climbers, including highly experienced mountaineers. There are two main climbing routes, one approaching the summit from the southeast in Nepal (known as the "standard route") and the other from the north in Tibet. While not posing substantial technical climbing challenges on the standard route, Everest presents dangers such as altitude sickness, weather, and wind, as well as hazards from avalanches and the Khumbu Icefall. As of November 2022, 310 people have died on Everest. Over 200 bodies remain on the mountain and have not been removed due to the dangerous conditions.

The first recorded efforts to reach Everest's summit were made by British mountaineers. As Nepal did not allow foreigners to enter the country at the time, the British made several attempts on the north ridge route from the Tibetan side. After the first reconnaissance expedition by the British in 1921 reached 7,000 m (22,970 ft) on the North Col, the 1922 expedition pushed the north ridge route up to 8,320 m (27,300 ft), marking the first time a human had climbed above 8,000 m (26,247 ft). The 1924 expedition resulted in one of the greatest mysteries on Everest to this day: George Mallory and Andrew Irvine made a final summit attempt on 8 June but never returned, sparking debate as to whether they were the first to reach the top. Tenzing Norgay and Edmund Hillary made the first documented ascent of Everest in 1953, using the southeast ridge route. Norgay had reached 8,595 m (28,199 ft) the previous year as a member of the 1952 Swiss expedition. The Chinese mountaineering team of Wang Fuzhou, Gonpo, and Qu Yinhua made the first reported ascent of the peak from the north ridge on 25 May 1960.

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