Iceberg

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**Iceberg Characteristics:**
– Icebergs are formed from freshwater glacial ice and float in saltwater.
– They vary in size, shape, color, and can capsize, potentially causing tsunamis.
– Air trapped in snow forms bubbles in icebergs, which can affect their acoustic properties.
– Icebergs can be tabular or non-tabular in shape, with various classifications.

**Iceberg Dynamics:**
– Icebergs lose mass through melting and calving, influenced by factors like solar radiation and ocean-driven processes.
– Drift and deterioration of icebergs are interconnected, with winds and currents affecting their trajectory.
– Stability issues can lead to icebergs flipping or capsizing, sometimes causing glacial earthquakes.
– The shape, color, and stability of icebergs are key aspects of their dynamics.

**Iceberg Monitoring and Management:**
– The U.S. National Ice Center and Danish Meteorological Institute track iceberg concentrations globally.
– Remote sensors on satellites provide data for analysis and forecasting of ice conditions.
– Labrador and Newfoundland have iceberg management plans, with SAR data used for monitoring.
– Commercially, icebergs have been proposed for water towing and used in products like Iceberg Beer.

**Oceanography and Ecology Impact:**
– Melting icebergs inject freshwater into the ocean, altering seawater density and releasing nutrients.
– Icebergs can impact ocean waves, act as breakwaters, and fuel phytoplankton blooms through iron release.
– Iron concentrations in icebergs vary, affecting marine ecosystems differently.
– Iceberg melting has environmental implications on oceanographic conditions.

**Scientific Studies and Events:**
– Studies focus on iceberg dynamics, melting, underwater noise, and environmental impacts.
– Notable events include historical incidents like the Titanic sinking and recent large iceberg breakoffs.
– Artistic depictions of icebergs by renowned painters showcase their aesthetic and historical significance.
– Recent studies highlight the impact of icebergs on marine productivity and carbon export, as well as seismic analysis and wave propagation.

Iceberg (Wikipedia)

An iceberg is a piece of freshwater ice more than 15 m long that has broken off a glacier or an ice shelf and is floating freely in open (salt) water. Smaller chunks of floating glacially derived ice are called "growlers" or "bergy bits". Much of an iceberg is below the water's surface, which led to the expression "tip of the iceberg" to illustrate a small part of a larger unseen issue. Icebergs are considered a serious maritime hazard.

An iceberg in the Arctic Ocean
Icebergs in Greenland as filmed by NASA in 2015

Icebergs vary considerably in size and shape. Icebergs that calve from glaciers in Greenland are often irregularly shaped while Antarctic ice shelves often produce large tabular (table top) icebergs. The largest iceberg in recent history, named B-15, was measured at nearly 300 by 40 kilometres (186 by 25 mi) in 2000. The largest iceberg on record was an Antarctic tabular iceberg measuring 335 by 97 kilometres (208 by 60 mi) sighted 240 kilometres (150 mi) west of Scott Island, in the South Pacific Ocean, by the USS Glacier on November 12, 1956. This iceberg was larger than Belgium.

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