Ethiopia

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**Historical and Cultural Significance**:
– Ethiopia’s name originates from the Greek term meaning ‘burnt-face’ or ‘red-brown.’
– Ancestral home of anatomically modern humans and proposed homeland of the Afroasiatic language family.
– Oldest hominid discoveries include Ardipithecus ramidus (Ardi) and Australopithecus afarensis (Lucy).
– Kingdom of Dmt, Kingdom of Aksum, and various dynasties shaped Ethiopia’s history.
– Ethiopia officially adopted Christianity around 324 AD, becoming one of the earliest Christian nations.
– Significant diplomatic relations with Portugal and religious influence by Roman Catholic missionaries.

**Geography, Demographics, and International Relations**:
– Located in the Horn of Africa, bordered by several countries with a population of around 128 million.
– Addis Ababa serves as the capital and largest city.
– Member of various international organizations including the UN, African Union, and BRICS.
– Multi-ethnic state with over 80 ethnic groups and Christianity as the dominant religion.
– Headquarters of the African Union and a key player in global diplomatic relations.

**Economic Development and Challenges**:
– Ethiopia is an emerging power with rapid economic growth.
– Agriculture contributes significantly to the GDP.
– High poverty rates and low Human Development Index pose challenges.
– Foreign direct investment has boosted agricultural and manufacturing sectors.
– Issues include human rights violations, ethnic discrimination, and low literacy rates.

**Political History and Government Structure**:
– Ethiopia boasts over 3000 years of independence and rich political history.
– Resisted European colonization and maintained sovereignty.
– Transitioned from imperial rule to a federal parliamentary republic.
– Various historical periods include the Zagwe dynasty, Ethiopian Empire, and modern era under different leaders.
– The government structure includes a Prime Minister as the head of government and a ceremonial President.

**Recent Events and Challenges**:
– Civil war from 1974 to 1991 led to the fall of the Derg regime.
– EPRDF took power in 1991, establishing a federal system.
– Challenges include ethnic tensions, political unrest, and human rights issues.
– Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2019.
– Ongoing economic reforms to attract foreign investment and spur growth amidst civil unrest.

Ethiopia (Wikipedia)

Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa region of East Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea to the north, Djibouti to the northeast, Somalia to the Northeast, East and Southeast, Kenya to the South, South Sudan to the West, and Sudan to the Northwest. Ethiopia covers a land area of 1,112,000 square kilometres (472,000 sq. miles). As of 2023, it is home to around 128 million inhabitants, making it the 13th-most populous country in the world, the 2nd-most populous in Africa after Nigeria, and the most populated landlocked country on Earth. The national capital and largest city, Addis Ababa, lies several kilometres west of the East African Rift that splits the country into the African and Somali tectonic plates.

Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዴሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ (Amharic)
Ye'ītiyop'iya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīki
Anthem: 
ወደፊት ገስግሺ ፣ ውድ እናት ኢትዮጵያ
"Wedefīt Gesigishī Wid Inat ītiyop’iy"
(English: "March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia")
Location of Ethiopia
Location of Ethiopia
Capital
and largest city
Addis Ababa
9°1′N 38°45′E / 9.017°N 38.750°E / 9.017; 38.750
Official languagesAfar
Amharic
Oromo
Somali
Tigrinya
Ethnic groups
(2007 census)
Religion
(2016)
Demonym(s)Ethiopian
GovernmentFederal parliamentary republic
• President
Sahle-Work Zewde
Abiy Ahmed
Temesgen Tiruneh
Tewodros Mihret
LegislatureFederal Parliamentary Assembly
House of Federation
House of Peoples' Representatives
Formation
• Dʿmt
980 BC
400 BC
1270
7 May 1769
11 February 1855
1904
9 May 1936
31 January 1942
• Derg
12 September 1974
22 February 1987
28 May 1991
21 August 1995
Area
• Total
1,112,000 km2 (429,000 sq mi) (26th)
• Water (%)
0.7
Population
• 2023 estimate
Increase 127,955,823 (13th)
• 2007 census
Increase 73,750,932
• Density
92.7/km2 (240.1/sq mi) (123rd)
GDP (PPP)2024 estimate
• Total
Increase $427.297 billion (55th)
• Per capita
Increase $3,719 (159th)
GDP (nominal)2024 estimate
• Total
Increase $192.013 billion (59th)
• Per capita
Increase $1,787 (159th)
Gini (2015)Negative increase 35.0
medium
HDI (2021)Increase 0.498
low (175th)
CurrencyBirr (ETB)
Time zoneUTC+3 (EAT)
Date formatdd/mm/yyyy
Driving sideright
Calling code+251
ISO 3166 codeET
Internet TLD.et

Anatomically modern humans emerged from modern-day Ethiopia and set out for the Near East and elsewhere in the Middle Paleolithic period. Southwestern Ethiopia has been proposed as a possible homeland of the Afroasiatic language family. In 980 BC, the Kingdom of D'mt extended its realm over Eritrea and the northern region of Ethiopia, while the Kingdom of Aksum maintained a unified civilization in the region for 900 years. Christianity was embraced by the kingdom in 330, and Islam arrived by the first Hijra in 615. After the collapse of Aksum in 960, the Zagwe dynasty ruled the north-central parts of Ethiopia until being overthrown by Yekuno Amlak in 1270, inaugurating the Ethiopian Empire and the Solomonic dynasty, claimed descent from the biblical Solomon and Queen of Sheba under their son Menelik I. By the 14th century, the empire had grown in prestige through territorial expansion and fighting against adjacent territories; most notably, the Ethiopian–Adal War (1529–1543) contributed to fragmentation of the empire, which ultimately fell under a decentralization known as Zemene Mesafint in the mid-18th century. Emperor Tewodros II ended Zemene Mesafint at the beginning of his reign in 1855, marking the reunification and modernization of Ethiopia.

From 1878 onwards, Emperor Menelik II launched a series of conquests known as Menelik's Expansions, which resulted in the formation of Ethiopia's current border. Externally, during the late 19th century, Ethiopia defended itself against foreign invasions, including from Egypt and Italy; as a result, Ethiopia preserved its sovereignty during the Scramble for Africa. In 1936, Ethiopia was occupied by Fascist Italy and annexed with Italian-possessed Eritrea and Somaliland, later forming Italian East Africa. In 1941, during World War II, it was occupied by the British Army, and its full sovereignty was restored in 1944 after a period of military administration. The Derg, a Soviet-backed military junta, took power in 1974 after deposing Emperor Haile Selassie and the Solomonic dynasty, and ruled the country for nearly 17 years amidst the Ethiopian Civil War. Following the dissolution of the Derg in 1991, the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) dominated the country with a new constitution and ethnic-based federalism. Since then, Ethiopia has suffered from prolonged and unsolved inter-ethnic clashes and political instability marked by democratic backsliding. From 2018, regional and ethnically based factions carried out armed attacks in multiple ongoing wars throughout Ethiopia.

Ethiopia is a multi-ethnic state with over 80 different ethnic groups. Christianity is the most widely professed faith in the country, with significant minorities of the adherents of Islam and a small percentage to traditional faiths. This sovereign state is a founding member of the UN, the Group of 24, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77, and the Organisation of African Unity. Addis Ababa is the headquarters of the African Union, the Pan African Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, the African Standby Force and many of the global non-governmental organizations focused on Africa. Ethiopia became a full member of BRICS in 2024. Ethiopia is one of the least developed countries but is sometimes considered an emerging power, having the fastest economic growth in Sub-Saharan African countries because of foreign direct investment in expansion of agricultural and manufacturing industries; agriculture is the country's largest economic sector, accounting for 36% of the gross domestic product as of 2020.


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