Soyuz (spacecraft)

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**Soyuz Spacecraft Overview:**
– History of Soyuz spacecraft including significant missions and accidents.
– Design features of Soyuz spacecraft with details on its three parts and capabilities.
– Launch escape system details and its importance in crew safety.
– Features of the orbital module and its critical functions.
– Information on the automatic docking system and operational aspects of Soyuz spacecraft.

**Soyuz Descent and Service Modules:**
– Description of the descent module and its functions during launch and reentry.
– Details about the heat-resistant materials used for protection during reentry.
– Features of the service module including systems for temperature control and communication.
– Explanation of the propulsion systems in the service module for maneuvering.
– Information on the reentry procedure and landing process in Kazakhstan.

**Evolution of Soyuz Spacecraft:**
– Overview of the first-generation Soyuz spacecraft and its capabilities.
– Details about the second-generation upgrades and advancements.
– Features of the third-generation Soyuz-T spacecraft with improved systems.
– Information on the fourth-generation Soyuz-TM and Soyuz MS spacecraft.
– Related craft derived from Soyuz technology and the development of replacements like Orel.

**Additional Resources and References:**
– Details on the Soyuz TMA spacecraft specifications and missions to the ISS.
– Information on the Mir Hardware Heritage and its components documented by David S. F. Portree.
– Educational content on the journey to the ISS using the Soyuz spacecraft.
– Availability of the short film “Four in the Cosmos (1969)” showcasing early space exploration.
– List of specific Soyuz spacecraft missions, including successful and failed ones.

**External Sources and Further Reading:**
– References from Time Magazine, MSNBC, BBC, and books like ‘Space Rescue: Ensuring the Safety of Manned Spacecraft.’
– Sources like Russianspaceweb and Spaceflight Now for detailed information on Soyuz spacecraft.
– Reports on Soyuz reliability, capabilities, and links to more in-depth resources.
– Information on related spacecraft like Progress, Shenzhou, Indian Orbital Vehicle, and CSTS.
– Details on the Orel spacecraft as a Russian Soyuz replacement with the first crewed flight scheduled for 2025.

Soyuz (spacecraft) (Wikipedia)

Soyuz (Russian: Союз, IPA: [sɐˈjus], lit. 'Union') is a series of spacecraft which has been in service since the 1960s, having made more than 140 flights. It was designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now Energia). The Soyuz succeeded the Voskhod spacecraft and was originally built as part of the Soviet crewed lunar programs. It is launched on a Soyuz rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. Between the 2011 retirement of the Space Shuttle and the 2020 demo flight of SpaceX Crew Dragon, the Soyuz served as the only means to ferry crew to or from the International Space Station, for which it remains heavily used. Although China did launch crewed Shenzhou flights during this time, none of them docked with the ISS.

Soyuz MS, the latest version of the spacecraft
Country of originSoviet Union, Russia
OperatorSoviet space program (1967–1991)
Roscosmos (1992–present)
ApplicationsCarry cosmonauts to orbit and back (originally for Soviet Moonshot and Salyut and Mir space station transportation)
Crew capacity3
RegimeLow Earth orbit,
Medium Earth orbit
(circumlunar spaceflight during early program)
Design lifeUp to 6 months (docked to International Space Station)
StatusIn service
Maiden launchKosmos 133: 28 November 1966 (uncrewed)
Soyuz 1: 23 April 1967 (crewed)
Last launchLatest launch: Soyuz MS-25 23 March 2024 (crewed)
Related spacecraft
DerivativesShenzhou, Progress
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