Sao Paulo

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**Historical Background and Development:**
– Sao Paulo was founded in 1554 by Jesuit priests and became the capital of the Captaincy of Sao Vicente in 1683.
– The city evolved from a poor settlement to an influential global city through events like the Sao Paulo Revolt in 1924 and the influx of immigrants during the Imperial and Old Republican Periods.
– Industrialization and urban development led to Sao Paulo’s growth, attracting notable artists and transforming it into a national metropolis.
– The Bandeirantes played a crucial role in Sao Paulo’s development, making it politically powerful and leading to its elevation to city status in 1711.

**Economic Significance:**
– Sao Paulo boasts the largest city GDP in Latin America, contributing 10.7% to Brazil’s GDP.
– The city is a financial and commercial hub, home to the Sao Paulo Stock Exchange and 63% of established multinationals in Brazil.
– Sao Paulo’s economic core lies in Paulista Avenue, with a shift towards services and financial institutions over time.
– Coffee production, industrialization, and major events like the Brazilian Grand Prix and Sao Paulo Fashion Week have fueled the city’s economic growth.

**Cultural Diversity and Influence:**
– Sao Paulo is known for its cultural landmarks, events like the Sao Paulo Jazz Festival, and a diverse population with diasporas from various communities.
– The city exerts strong international influence in commerce, finance, arts, and entertainment, with significant contributions to Brazil’s scientific production.
– Notable artists like Tarsila do Amaral emerged in Sao Paulo, shaping the city’s cultural scene.
– Sao Paulo hosts events like the Sao Paulo Art Biennial and the world’s largest LGBT Pride parade.

**Geography, Hydrography, and Environmental Challenges:**
– Sao Paulo is located at 23.550°S 46.633°W, covering an area of 1,521.11km² with a population of over 22 million in the Greater Sao Paulo metro area.
– The city faces environmental challenges like pollution in the Tiete and Pinheiros rivers, leading to initiatives like the Cantareira State Park for water supply protection.
– Sao Paulo’s parks, including Cantareira State Park and Ibirapuera Park, offer green spaces in an ecotone area with various biomes.
– The city’s climate, with average rainfall of 1,454mm annually, poses risks of drought and water shortages, affecting its infrastructure and demographics.

**Transportation, Urban Development, and Infrastructure:**
– Sao Paulo’s transportation system includes the Sao Paulo Metro, with 1.1 billion passengers in 2016, and urban development projects like the Avenue Plan and rectification of the Tiete river.
– Key figures like Mayor Prestes Maia and Governor Ademar de Barros spearheaded urban interventions and infrastructure projects to accommodate the city’s growing population.
– The city’s infrastructure faces challenges like pollution in the Tiete River, air pollution exceeding local standards, and limited water supply sources due to urban expansion.
– Sao Paulo’s economic diversity, Sao Paulo Stock Exchange, and role as a financial center highlight its infrastructure, attracting foreign investment and multinational corporations.

Sao Paulo (Wikipedia)

São Paulo (/ˌs ˈpl/, Portuguese: [sɐ̃w ˈpawlu] ; Portuguese for 'Saint Paul') is the most populous city in Brazil and the capital of the state of São Paulo. Listed by the GaWC as an alpha global city, São Paulo is the most populous city in the world outside of Asia and the world's 20th-largest city proper by population. Additionally, São Paulo is the largest Portuguese-speaking city in the world. It exerts strong international influences in commerce, finance, arts, and entertainment. The city's name honors the Apostle, Saint Paul of Tarsus. The city's metropolitan area, the Greater São Paulo, ranks as the most populous in Brazil and the 12th-most-populous on Earth. The process of conurbation between the metropolitan areas around the Greater São Paulo (Campinas, Santos, Jundiaí, Sorocaba and São José dos Campos) created the São Paulo Macrometropolis, a megalopolis with more than 30 million inhabitants, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world.

São Paulo
Municipality of São Paulo
Município de São Paulo
Flag of São Paulo
Coat of arms of São Paulo
Selva de Pedra (Concrete Jungle); Terra da Garoa (Drizzle Land); Sampa; "Pauliceia Desvairada" (Crazy Pauliceia)
"Non ducor, duco"  (Latin)
"I am not led, I lead"
Location in the state of São Paulo
Location in the state of São Paulo
São Paulo is located in Brazil
São Paulo
São Paulo
Location in Brazil
São Paulo is located in South America
São Paulo
São Paulo
São Paulo (South America)
Coordinates: 23°33′S 46°38′W / 23.550°S 46.633°W / -23.550; -46.633
StateSão Paulo
Historic countriesKingdom of Portugal
United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves
Empire of Brazil
Founded25 January 1554; 470 years ago (1554-01-25)
Founded byManuel da Nóbrega and Joseph of Anchieta
Named forPaul the Apostle
 • TypeMayor–council
 • BodyMunicipal Chamber of São Paulo
 • MayorRicardo Nunes (MDB)
 • Vice MayorVacant
 • Municipality1,521.11 km2 (587.3039 sq mi)
 • Urban
11,698 km2 (4,517 sq mi)
 • Metro
7,946.96 km2 (3,068.338 sq mi)
 • Macrometropolis53,369.61 km2 (20,606.12 sq mi)
760 m (2,493.4 ft)
 • Rank1st in South America
1st in Brazil
 • Density8,005.25/km2 (20,733.5/sq mi)
 • Metro
22,001,281 (Greater São Paulo)
 • Metro density2,714.45/km2 (7,030.4/sq mi)
 • Macrometropolis
GDP (nominal) (metro area)
 • Year2023
 • Total$319.3 billion
GDP (PPP, constant 2015 values) (metro area)
 • Year2023
 • Total$531.3 billion
Time zoneUTC−03:00 (BRT)
Postal Code (CEP)
Area code+55 11
HDI (2010)0.805 – very high
Primary AirportSão Paulo–Guarulhos International Airport
Secondary AirportsSão Paulo–Congonhas Airport
Campo de Marte Airport
Rapid TransitSão Paulo Metro
Commuter RailCPTM

São Paulo has the largest economy by GDP of the cities of Latin America, and the 23rd largest city GDP in the world, representing 10.7% of the Brazilian GDP and 36% of the goods and services produced in the state of São Paulo. The city is home to the São Paulo Stock Exchange, as well as 63% of established multinationals in Brazil. Paulista Avenue is the economic core of São Paulo.

The city was responsible for 28% of the national scientific production in 2005, as measured by the number of science papers published in journals.

The metropolis is also home to several of the tallest skyscrapers in Brazil, including the Mirante do Vale, Edifício Itália, Banespa, North Tower and many others. The city has cultural, economic and political influence nationally and internationally. It is home to monuments, parks and museums such as the Latin American Memorial, the Ibirapuera Park, UNASP São Paulo Memory Center, Museum of Ipiranga, São Paulo Museum of Art, and the Museum of the Portuguese Language. Its main university, the University of São Paulo, is considered the best in Brazil and Latin America. The city holds events like the São Paulo Jazz Festival, São Paulo Art Biennial, the Brazilian Grand Prix, São Paulo Fashion Week, the ATP Brasil Open, the Brasil Game Show and the Comic Con Experience. São Paulo's LGBT Pride parade ranks second only to the New York City Pride March among the largest LGBT Pride parades in the world.

São Paulo is a cosmopolitan, melting pot city, home to the largest Arab, Italian, and Japanese diasporas, with examples including ethnic neighborhoods of Bixiga, Bom Retiro, and Liberdade. In 2016, inhabitants of the city were native to over 200 countries. People from the city are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the state, including the paulistanos. The city's Latin motto, which it has shared with the battleship and the aircraft carrier named after it, is Non ducor, duco, which translates as "I am not led, I lead." The city, which is also colloquially known as Sampa, Selva de Pedra (Jungle of Stone) or Terra da Garoa (Land of Drizzle), is known for its unreliable weather, the size of its helicopter fleet, its architecture, gastronomy, severe traffic congestion and skyscrapers. São Paulo was one of the host cities of the 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups. Additionally, the city hosted the IV Pan American Games, Miss Universe 2011, and the São Paulo Indy 300.

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