Natural science

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**1. Branches of Natural Science:**

– Natural science encompasses astronomy, physics, chemistry, Earth science, and biology.
– It can be divided into life science (biology) and physical science (physics, chemistry, Earth science, astronomy).
– These branches may further specialize into various fields.
– Natural sciences use tools from formal sciences like mathematics to explain natural laws.
– Modern natural science has roots in classical approaches but emphasizes mathematical and experimental methodologies.

**2. Specific Disciplines within Natural Science:**

Biology studies living organisms’ characteristics, behaviors, and interactions with the environment.
– Earth science includes geology, geography, geophysics, climatology, and oceanography.
– Atmospheric science studies different atmospheric layers and climatic patterns.
– Planetary science encompasses planetary geology, cosmochemistry, atmospheric science, physics, oceanography.
– Chemistry involves the study of matter at the atomic and molecular scale.
– Physics is the study of the fundamental constituents of the universe.
– Astronomy studies celestial objects and phenomena.

**3. Historical Development of Natural Science:**

– Origins trace back to pre-literate human societies.
– Formalized inquiry in Mesopotamian and Ancient Egyptian cultures.
– Emergence of scientific inquiry in Ancient China and India.
– Aristotle’s contributions to natural philosophy.
– Newton and the Scientific Revolution (1600–1800).

**4. Interdisciplinary Studies in Natural Science:**

– Interdisciplinary studies focus on the interconnectedness of various scientific disciplines.
– Encourages collaboration between different fields of study.
– Aims to address complex scientific challenges.
– Involves combining methodologies and approaches from multiple disciplines.
– Seeks to broaden understanding and perspectives in scientific research.

**5. Influence of Philosophers and Philosophical Movements on Natural Science:**

– Philosophers like Karl Popper suggest criteria like falsifiability to differentiate scientific endeavors.
– Aristotle’s focus on the natural world in his philosophy.
– Environmental science studies interactions of physical, chemical, geological, and biological components.
– Influence of Ancient Greek and Roman philosophers on natural philosophy.
– Complex relationship between natural philosophy and Christianity in the Middle Ages.

Natural science (Wikipedia)

Natural science is one of the branches of science concerned with the description, understanding and prediction of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation. Mechanisms such as peer review and repeatability of findings are used to try to ensure the validity of scientific advances.

The natural sciences seek to understand how the world and universe around us works. There are five major branches: astronomy, physics, chemistry, Earth science, and biology.

Natural science can be divided into two main branches: life science and physical science. Life science is alternatively known as biology, and physical science is subdivided into branches: physics, chemistry, earth science, and astronomy. These branches of natural science may be further divided into more specialized branches (also known as fields). As empirical sciences, natural sciences use tools from the formal sciences, such as mathematics and logic, converting information about nature into measurements which can be explained as clear statements of the "laws of nature".

Modern natural science succeeded more classical approaches to natural philosophy. Galileo, Kepler, Descartes, Bacon, and Newton debated the benefits of using approaches which were more mathematical and more experimental in a methodical way. Still, philosophical perspectives, conjectures, and presuppositions, often overlooked, remain necessary in natural science. Systematic data collection, including discovery science, succeeded natural history, which emerged in the 16th century by describing and classifying plants, animals, minerals, and so on. Today, "natural history" suggests observational descriptions aimed at popular audiences.

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