List of Antarctic expeditions

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**Historical Background:**

– Greek Philosophers theorize Spherical Earth with North and South Polar regions around 600 BC – 300 BC.
– Ptolemy published Geographia in 150 AD, noting Terra Australis Incognita.

**Early Exploration:**

– Ui-te-Rangiora claims to have sighted southern ice fields in the 7th century.
– Polynesians settle Auckland Islands (50°S) in the 13th century.
– Juan Sebastián de El Cano first circumnavigates the globe in 1522, discovering the Strait of Magellan (54°S).
– Francisco de Hoces reportedly blown south from the Strait of Magellan to (56°S) discovering the Drake passage in 1526.

**19th Century Discoveries:**

– William Smith discovers the South Shetland Islands (62°00′S 58°00′W) in 1819.
– Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev discover Alexander Island and Peter I Island in Antarctica between 1819–1821.
– Edward Bransfield with William Smith sight Trinity Peninsula (63°37′S 58°20′W) in 1820.

**20th Century Expeditions:**

– New Zealand Federated Mountain Clubs Antarctic Expedition led by John M. Millen in 1962–1963.
– 8th Soviet Antarctic Expedition led by Mikhail Somov in 1962–1964.
– South Pole—Queen Maud Land Traverse I in 1964–1965.
– 22nd Soviet Antarctic Expedition led by N. Tyabin, Leonid Dubrovin in 1976–1978.
– Transglobe Expedition led by Ranulph Fiennes in 1980–1981.

**21st Century Exploration:**

– South Pole—Queen Maud Land Traverse II in 1965–1966.
– First Venezuelan Scientific Expedition to Antarctica in 2008.
– Liv Arnesen and Ann Bancroft crossed Antarctica on ski-sail in 2000–2001.
– Moon Regan Transantarctic Crossing in 2010 was the first wheeled transantarctic crossing.
– Third and Fourth Venezuelan Scientific Expeditions took place in 2010 and 2011.

This list of Antarctica expeditions is a chronological list of expeditions involving Antarctica. Although the existence of a southern continent had been hypothesized as early as the writings of Ptolemy in the 1st century AD, the South Pole was not reached until 1911.

Terra Australis
Terra Australis is the large continent on the bottom of this 1570 map
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