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**History and Naming:**
– Johannesburg’s early history involves controversies around the origin of its name, potentially linked to individuals named Johannes.
– The discovery of the main Witwatersrand gold reef in 1884 triggered the city’s rapid growth during the Gold Rush.
– The city’s population reached 100,000 within ten years of its establishment.
– Significant figures like Jan Gerritse Bantjes and Johannes Meyer played roles in the city’s formation.
– The region was originally inhabited by San hunter-gatherers, with subsequent settlements by Sotho–Tswana communities.

**Significance and Population:**
– Johannesburg is South Africa’s most populous city and a megacity, hosting major companies and banks.
– It is classified as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network.
– The city’s demographics are diverse, with a mix of White, Coloured, Indian/Asian, and Other populations.
– In 2019, Johannesburg’s urban agglomeration population was 8,000,000.
– Johannesburg is the provincial capital and largest city of Gauteng.

**Geography and Topography:**
– Johannesburg is located in the Highveld region, characterized by undulating hills and rivers like the Jukskei and Klip.
– Witwatersrand’s glistening rocks and water sources led to the city’s founding due to gold deposits.
– The city’s elevation is 1,753 meters, with a subtropical highland climate featuring hot summers and cool winters.
– Parks and gardens like the Johannesburg Botanical Garden and various nature reserves offer recreational opportunities.
– The Witwatersrand gold industry once contributed significantly to global gold production.

**Events and Incidents:**
– Johannesburg hosted the 2010 FIFA World Cup final and the 15th BRICS summit in 2023.
– The city has experienced incidents like xenophobic riots in 2008 and 2019, impacting its social fabric.
– Tragic events, such as a building fire in August 2023 resulting in 76 deaths, have occurred in Johannesburg.
– The city’s climate includes hot summers, occasional frost in winters, and rare snowfall.
– Annual rainfall averages 713 millimeters, with varying precipitation levels throughout the year.

**Culture and Demographics:**
– Johannesburg’s population has grown significantly over the years, with a racially diverse demographic.
– Mainstream Christian churches are prevalent among residents, alongside other religious affiliations like Muslims, Jews, and Hindus.
– The city’s linguistic diversity includes languages like Zulu, English, Afrikaans, and Sotho languages.
– Johannesburg boasts a well-developed higher education system, with prominent institutions like the University of the Witwatersrand and University of Johannesburg.
– The Jewish community in Johannesburg is concentrated in specific suburbs, reflecting the city’s multicultural fabric.

Johannesburg (Wikipedia)

Johannesburg (/ˈhænɪsbɜːrɡ/ joh-HAN-iss-burg, US also /-ˈhɑːn-/ -⁠HAHN-, Afrikaans: [jʊəˈɦanəsbœrχ]; Zulu and Xhosa: eGoli [ɛˈɡɔːli]) (colloquially known as Jozi, Joburg, Jo'burg or "The City of Gold") is the most populous city in South Africa with 4,803,262 people, and is classified as a megacity; it is one of the 100 largest urban areas in the world. It is the provincial capital and largest city of Gauteng, which is the wealthiest province in South Africa. Johannesburg is the seat of the Constitutional Court, the highest court in South Africa. Most of the major South African companies and banks have their head offices in Johannesburg. The city is located within the mineral-rich Witwatersrand hills, the epicentre of the international-scale mineral, gold and (specifically) diamond trade.

City of Johannesburg
Jo'burg; Jozi; Muḓi Mulila Ngoma (Venda version), Joni (Tsonga version); Jobhag (Bhojpuri version); Egoli ("Place of Gold"); Gauteng ("Place of Gold")
"Service with Pride"
Johannesburg is located in Gauteng
Johannesburg is located in South Africa
Johannesburg is located in Africa
Coordinates: 26°12′16″S 28°2′44″E / 26.20444°S 28.04556°E / -26.20444; 28.04556
CountrySouth Africa
MunicipalityCity of Johannesburg
Established1886; 138 years ago (1886)
 • TypeMetropolitan municipality
 • MayorKabelo Gwamanda (Al Jama-ah)
 • City334.81 km2 (129.27 sq mi)
 • Urban
3,357 km2 (1,296 sq mi)
 • Metro
1,642.6 km2 (634.2 sq mi)
1,753 m (5,751 ft)
 • City957,441
 • Rank8th in Africa
1st in South Africa
 • Density2,900/km2 (7,400/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Metro
 • Metro density2,900/km2 (7,600/sq mi)
Racial makeup (2019)
 • Black African76.4%
 • White12.3%
 • Coloured5.6%
 • Indian/Asian4.9%
 • Other0.8%
First languages (2011)
 • Zulu23.41%
 • English20.10%
 • Sesotho9.61%
 • Setswana7.68%
 • Afrikaans7.28%
 • Other18.10%
Time zoneUTC+2 (SAST)
Postal code (street)
PO box
Area code010 and 011
HDIIncrease 0.75 High (2012)
GDPUS$131 billion (2020)
GDP per capita (PPP)US$16370 (2014)

Johannesburg was established in 1886, following the discovery of gold, on what had been a farm. Due to the extremely large gold deposits found along the Witwatersrand, within ten years, the population had grown to over 100,000 inhabitants. A separate city from the late 1970s until 1994, Soweto is now part of the Greater Johannesburg metropolitan area. An acronym for "South-Western Townships", Soweto was organised initially as a collection of nondescript settlements on the outskirts of the city, populated mostly by African labourers working in the gold mining industry. Soweto, although eventually incorporated into Johannesburg, had been explicitly separated as a residential area for blacks only—no whites allowed—who were not permitted to live in other "white-designated" areas of Johannesburg. Another region, Lenasia, is predominantly populated by English-speaking Indo-South Africans (people of Indian and South Asian descent). These areas were, in previous decades, designated as non-white areas, in accordance with apartheid policies of the time.

Johannesburg was one of the host cities of the official tournament of the 2010 FIFA World Cup including the final.

The metropolis is an alpha global city, as listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. In 2019, the population of the city of Johannesburg was 5635127, making it the most populous city in South Africa. In the same year, the population of metro Johannesburg's urban agglomeration was put at 8000000. Land area of the municipal city (1,645 km2 or 635 sq mi) is large in comparison with those of other major cities, resulting in a moderate population density of 2,364 per square kilometre (6,120/sq mi).

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