First aid

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**Historical Development of First Aid:**
– First aid skills have been documented throughout history, particularly in relation to warfare.
– Examples include bandaging battle wounds on Classical Greek pottery and the role of capsarii in the Roman legions.
– Organizations like the Knights Hospitaller and the Red Cross played significant roles in formalizing life-saving treatments.
– Key figures like Friedrich von Esmarch and Peter Shepherd contributed to the establishment of formalized first aid programs.

**Objectives and Principles of First Aid:**
– The primary goal of first aid is to prevent death or serious injury from worsening.
– The three Ps summarize the key aims of first aid: preserve life, prevent harm, and promote recovery.
– First aid involves making common sense decisions in the best interest of the injured person.
– Protocols like ABCDE prioritize actions to save human lives and emphasize the importance of correct execution.

**ABCDE Method in First Aid Assessment:**
– The ABCDE method focuses on assessing airway, breathing, circulation, disability, and exposure.
– Each component includes specific assessment techniques, signs to watch for, and appropriate treatments.
– Immediate actions for conditions like airway obstruction, respiratory distress, hypovolemia, and decreased consciousness are highlighted.
– The method guides first aid providers in systematically evaluating and addressing critical aspects of patient care.

**First Aid Applications and Specialized Training:**
– First aid is the immediate assistance given to individuals with illnesses or injuries to preserve life and promote recovery.
– Specialized training is available for scenarios like aquatic/marine, battlefield, conflict, hyperbaric, and wilderness first aid.
– First aid services can be provided at various events by voluntary organizations like the Red Cross or through paid employment.
– Different symbols, such as the white cross on a green background, are used to identify first aid services and providers globally.

**Equipment and Resources in First Aid Provision:**
– First aid kits are essential for immediate attention in accidents and emergencies.
– The contents of first aid kits vary based on the setting and activities.
– Training courses leading to certification are available for individuals interested in providing first aid.
– Automatic External Defibrillators (AEDs) play a crucial role in cases of sudden cardiac arrest, emphasizing the importance of rapid intervention.

First aid (Wikipedia)

First aid is the first and immediate assistance given to any person with either a minor or serious illness or injury, with care provided to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening, or to promote recovery until medical services arrive. First aid is generally performed by someone with basic medical training. Mental health first aid is an extension of the concept of first aid to cover mental health, while psychological first aid is used as early treatment of people who are at risk for developing PTSD. Conflict first aid, focused on preservation and recovery of an individual's social or relationship well-being, is being piloted in Canada.

The universal first aid symbol
A US Navy corpsman gives first aid to an injured Iraqi citizen.

There are many situations that may require first aid, and many countries have legislation, regulation, or guidance, which specifies a minimum level of first aid provision in certain circumstances. This can include specific training or equipment to be available in the workplace (such as an automated external defibrillator), the provision of specialist first aid cover at public gatherings, or mandatory first aid training within schools. Generally, five steps are associated with first aid:

  1. Assess the surrounding areas.
  2. Move to a safe surrounding (if not already; for example, road accidents are unsafe to be dealt with on roads).
  3. Call for help: both professional medical help and people nearby who might help in first aid such as the compressions of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
  4. Perform suitable first aid depending on the injury suffered by the casualty.
  5. Evaluate the casualty for any fatal signs of danger, or possibility of performing the first aid again.
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