Theodore Roosevelt

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Early Life and Education of Theodore Roosevelt:
– Born on October 27, 1858, in New York City to Martha Stewart Bulloch and Theodore Roosevelt Sr.
– Had siblings Anna, Elliott, and Corinne.
– Showed interest in zoology at age seven.
– Homeschooled and excelled in geography, history, biology, French, and German.
– Entered Harvard College in 1876 after inheriting $65,000.

Political Career and Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt:
– Held various positions in New York politics and served as the 33rd governor of New York.
– Became the 25th vice president and assumed the presidency after McKinley’s assassination.
– Known for anti-trust and Progressive policies.
– Championed Square Deal domestic policies and conservation efforts.
– Won the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize for ending the Russo-Japanese War.

Personal Life and Relationships of Theodore Roosevelt:
– Married Alice Hathaway Lee in 1880, who passed away shortly after giving birth.
– Married Edith Kermit Carow in 1886, facing resistance from his sisters.
– Had five children with Edith and raised Alice’s daughter.
– Led a cattle ranching venture in Dakota and wrote books on frontier life.
– Reentered public life through various roles, including as New York City Police Commissioner.

Military and Naval Contributions of Theodore Roosevelt:
– Studied naval history and strategy, publishing ‘The Naval War of 1812’ in 1882.
– Served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy and influenced by Alfred Thayer Mahan’s views.
– Played a role in starting the Spanish–American War and led the Rough Riders in Cuba.
– Governor of New York and known for his military leadership and contributions to naval strength.
– Posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor in 2001 for his actions.

Policy and Reforms Implemented by Theodore Roosevelt:
– Trust busting and regulation efforts, breaking up monopolies and proposing the Department of Commerce and Labor.
– Intervened in the 1902 coal strike, emphasizing a ‘square deal for every man’ in labor disputes.
– Prosecuted misconduct in various government departments and regulated railroads through the Hepburn Act.
– Pushed for the Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act, inspired by Upton Sinclair’s book ‘The Jungle.’
– Left a lasting legacy in American politics and society, known for his progressive policies and leadership style.

Theodore Roosevelt (Wikipedia)

Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919), often referred to as Teddy or by his initials, T. R., was an American politician, statesman, conservationist, naturalist, and writer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909. He previously held various positions in New York politics, rising up the ranks to serve as the state's 33rd governor for two years. He later served as the 25th vice president under President William McKinley for six months in 1901, assuming the presidency after McKinley's assassination. As president, Roosevelt emerged as a leader of the Republican Party and became a driving force for anti-trust and Progressive policies.

Theodore Roosevelt
Portrait c. 1904
26th President of the United States
In office
September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909
Vice President
Preceded byWilliam McKinley
Succeeded byWilliam Howard Taft
25th Vice President of the United States
In office
March 4, 1901 – September 14, 1901
PresidentWilliam McKinley
Preceded byGarret Hobart
Succeeded byCharles W. Fairbanks
33rd Governor of New York
In office
January 1, 1899 – December 31, 1900
LieutenantTimothy L. Woodruff
Preceded byFrank S. Black
Succeeded byBenjamin Barker Odell Jr.
5th Assistant Secretary of the Navy
In office
April 19, 1897 – May 10, 1898
PresidentWilliam McKinley
Preceded byWilliam McAdoo
Succeeded byCharles Herbert Allen
President of the New York City Board of Police Commissioners
In office
May 6, 1895 – April 19, 1897
Appointed byWilliam Lafayette Strong
Preceded byJames J. Martin
Succeeded byFrank Moss
Member of the New York State Assembly
from the 21st district
In office
January 1, 1882 – December 31, 1884
Preceded byWilliam J. Trimble
Succeeded byHenry A. Barnum
Personal details
Born
Theodore Roosevelt Jr.

(1858-10-27)October 27, 1858
New York City, U.S.
DiedJanuary 6, 1919(1919-01-06) (aged 60)
Oyster Bay, New York, U.S.
Resting placeYoungs Memorial Cemetery, Oyster Bay
Political partyRepublican (1880–1912, 1916–1919)
Other political
affiliations
Progressive (1912–1916)
Spouses
RelativesRoosevelt family
Alma mater
Occupation
Civilian awardsNobel Peace Prize (1906)
SignatureCursive signature in ink
Military service
Branch/serviceUnited States Army
Years of service
RankColonel
Commands1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry
Battles/wars
Military awardsMedal of Honor (posthumous, 2001)

A sickly child with debilitating asthma, Roosevelt overcame his health problems by embracing a strenuous lifestyle. He integrated his exuberant personality and a vast range of interests and achievements into a "cowboy" persona defined by robust masculinity. He was home-schooled and began a lifelong naturalist avocation before attending Harvard College. His book The Naval War of 1812 (1882) established his reputation as a learned historian and popular writer. Upon entering politics, Roosevelt became the leader of the reform faction of Republicans in New York's state legislature. His first wife and mother died on the same night, devastating him psychologically. He recuperated by buying and operating a cattle ranch in the Dakotas. Roosevelt served as assistant secretary of the Navy under President McKinley, and in 1898 helped plan the highly successful naval war against Spain. He resigned to help form and lead the Rough Riders, a unit that fought the Spanish Army in Cuba to great publicity. Returning a war hero, Roosevelt was elected New York's governor in 1898. The New York state party leadership disliked his ambitious agenda and convinced McKinley to choose him as his running mate in the 1900 presidential election, in which Roosevelt campaigned vigorously and the McKinley–Roosevelt ticket won a landslide victory based on a platform of victory, peace, and prosperity.

Roosevelt assumed the presidency at age 42, and remains the youngest person to become president of the United States. As a leader of the progressive movement, he championed his "Square Deal" domestic policies, which called for fairness for all citizens, breaking of bad trusts, regulation of railroads, and pure food and drugs. Roosevelt prioritized conservation and established national parks, forests, and monuments to preserve the nation's natural resources. In foreign policy, he focused on Central America, where he began construction of the Panama Canal. Roosevelt expanded the Navy and sent the Great White Fleet on a world tour to project American naval power. His successful efforts to broker the end of the Russo-Japanese War won him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize, making him the first American to ever win a Nobel Prize. Roosevelt was elected to a full term in 1904 and promoted policies more to the left, despite growing opposition from Republican leaders. During his presidency, he groomed his close ally William Howard Taft to succeed him in the 1908 presidential election.

Roosevelt grew frustrated with Taft's conservatism and belatedly tried and failed to win the 1912 Republican presidential nomination. He founded the new Progressive Party and ran in the 1912 election, and the split allowed the Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson to win the election. Following the defeat, Roosevelt led a four-month expedition to the Amazon basin, where he nearly died of tropical disease. During World War I, he criticized Wilson for keeping the country out of the war, and his offer to lead volunteers to France was rejected. Roosevelt's health continued to deteriorate and he died in 1919. Polls of historians and political scientists rank him as one of the greatest presidents in American history.

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