Sun tanning

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**Impact of Sun Tanning on Skin Health:**
– Moderate sun exposure aids in melanin and vitamin D production.
– Excessive UV exposure can lead to sunburn, skin cancer, immune system suppression, and premature skin aging.
– Different skin types and natural skin color influence tanning and sunburn susceptibility.
– Long-term excessive exposure increases the risk of skin cancer and accelerates skin aging.

**Mechanisms and Effects of Tanning:**
– Melanin, produced by melanocytes, protects the skin by absorbing UV radiation.
– UVA and UVB radiation trigger mechanisms for tanning.
– Melanogenesis from UVB exposure leads to delayed tanning and sun protection.
– UVA oxidizes existing melanin, resulting in a cosmetic tan.
– The UV Index measures UV radiation intensity.

**Types of UV Radiation and Their Effects:**
– UVA radiation (320-400nm) oxidizes existing melanin and causes DNA damage indirectly.
– UVB radiation (280-320nm) triggers melanin production, sunburn, and CPD-DNA damage.
– UVB exposure is linked to skin cancer and skin aging.
– Frequent tanning bed use triples the risk of melanoma.

**Historical and Cultural Aspects of Sun Tanning:**
– Tanned skin was historically associated with lower social classes.
– In the early 20th century, tan skin became fashionable.
– Sunlight exposure was promoted for therapeutic benefits.
– Tanning activators containing psoralen were banned due to their photocarcinogenic properties.
– Evolution of societal attitudes towards sun tanning.

**Sun Protection and Industry Trends:**
– Sunscreen is vital for preventing skin cancer.
– Indoor tanning became a five-billion-dollar industry in the US by 2007.
– Sunless tanning methods like self-tanners and bronzers are available.
– The economic impact of tanning salons on the market.
– Growth statistics of the tanning industry in recent years.

Sun tanning (Wikipedia)

Sun tanning or tanning is the process whereby skin color is darkened or tanned. It is most often a result of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight or from artificial sources, such as a tanning lamp found in indoor tanning beds. People who deliberately tan their skin by exposure to the sun engage in a passive recreational activity of sun bathing. Some people use chemical products which can produce a tanning effect without exposure to ultraviolet radiation, known as sunless tanning.

A visible tan line on a woman whose skin has been darkened by ultraviolet exposure, except where covered
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