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– Etymology
– The term “research” comes from Middle French “recherche,” meaning to seek.
– It originated from Old French “recerchier,” a compound word from re- + cerchier.
– The earliest recorded use of “research” was in 1577.

– Definitions
– Research is a systematic study to find knowledge and truth.
– It involves a deliberate strategy starting with designing research hypotheses.
– John W. Creswell defines research as a process to collect and analyze information.
– Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary includes studying existing knowledge in its definition.

– Forms of Research
– Original research, or primary research, aims to produce new knowledge.
– It is not based solely on summarizing previous publications.
– Original research varies by discipline, often involving experimental work.
– It contributes to the advancement of human understanding in various fields.

– Researcher
– A researcher conducts research to increase knowledge.
– Specialized knowledge in a field is essential for social or natural science researchers.
– Professional associations offer pathways for growth in the research profession.
– Researchers play a critical role in advancing human knowledge and understanding.

– Meta-research
– Meta-research studies research practices themselves.
– It examines biases and errors in research activities.
– Meta-research contributes to improving the quality and reliability of research.
– Understanding meta-research enhances the credibility of research findings.

Research (Wikipedia)

Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge". It involves the collection, organization, and analysis of evidence to increase understanding of a topic, characterized by a particular attentiveness to controlling sources of bias and error. These activities are characterized by accounting and controlling for biases. A research project may be an expansion of past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole.

The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, and the research and development (R&D) of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, marketing, practitioner research, life, technological, etc. The scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research.

A researcher is a person engaged in conducting research, possibly recognized as an occupation by a formal job title. In order to be a social researcher or a social scientist, one should have enormous knowledge of subjects related to social science that they are specialized in. Similarly, in order to be a natural science researcher, the person should have knowledge of fields related to natural science (physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, zoology and so on). Professional associations provide one pathway to mature in the research profession.

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