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**Historical Evolution of the Term Refugee**:
– The term ‘refugee’ originated from Old French and Latin words, initially applied to French Huguenots in the 16th century.
– Over time, the definition expanded to include civilians fleeing World War I in 1916.
– Various groups like Huguenots, Jews, and Muslims have historically been displaced due to persecution or conflicts.
– The concept of seeking sanctuary dates back to ancient civilizations, with formal definitions established by the League of Nations in 1921 and the UN in 1951.

**Legal Framework and Definitions**:
– The 1951 UN Convention and 1967 Protocol define a refugee as someone with a well-founded fear of persecution based on specific grounds.
– Different regions have adopted broader definitions of refugees based on unique circumstances.
– Laws globally protect displaced persons beyond the narrow refugee definition.
– The EU and UNHCR provide legal and physical protection to refugees, ensuring their rights and well-being.

**Refugee Agencies and Organizations**:
– The UNHCR, established in 1950, protects and supports refugees globally, providing camps, aid, and durable solutions.
– UNRWA focuses specifically on Palestinian refugees, offering assistance, education, and healthcare in various regions.
– These agencies work towards humanitarian assistance, development, and protection of refugees in different parts of the world.

**Refugee Resettlement and Integration**:
– Refugee resettlement, relocation, and settlement involve organized transfers, basic adjustment, and long-term integration into receiving societies.
– Workforce integration ensures refugees engage in economic activities matching their qualifications.
– Durable solutions like repatriation, local integration, and third-country resettlement aim to provide refugees with safe and stable environments for rebuilding their lives.

**Refugee Rights and Protections**:
– Refugee rights encompass legal protections, entitlements, and obligations outlined in international agreements and legal frameworks.
– Rights to employment, family reunification, travel, and property restoration are crucial for refugees.
– Refugee status determination, asylum seeking processes, and the right of return are key aspects of ensuring refugees’ well-being and rights are upheld.

Refugee (Wikipedia)

A refugee, conventionally speaking, is a person who has lost the protection of their country of origin and who cannot or is unwilling to return there due to well-founded fear of persecution. Such a person may be called an asylum seeker until granted refugee status by the contracting state or the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) if they formally make a claim for asylum.

Refugees in 2022
Total population
c. 35.3 million
(29.4 million under the mandate of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and 5.9 million under UNRWA's mandate
Regions with significant populations
Sub-Saharan Africa7.0 million
Europe and North Asia12.4 million
Asia and the Pacific6.8 million
Middle East and North Africa2.4 million
Konrad Schumann, an East German border guard, fleeing East Germany towards West Germany in 1962
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