Parachuting

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History:
– Parachuting dates back to ancient times, with early accounts of successful descents using primitive devices.
– The modern parachute was invented in the late 18th century by Louis-Sébastien Lenormand.
– Parachuting gained prominence during World War I for military applications.
– The first parachute jump from an airplane was made by Captain Albert Berry in 1912.
– Parachuting continued to evolve over the years, with advancements in technology and techniques.

Common uses:
– Parachuting is a popular recreational activity and competitive sport worldwide.
– In the US alone, there were 3.3 million jumps in 2018.
– Military forces use parachuting for troop deployment and supply drops.
– Special operations forces often utilize free-fall parachuting for insertion missions.
– Smokejumpers are firefighters who use parachuting for rapid access to remote forest fire locations.

Safety:
– Parachuting safety has improved over the years, with a decline in average fatalities.
– In the US during the 1970s, the sport averaged 42.5 fatalities annually.
– By 2017, the average annual fatalities had decreased to 22.4, roughly 7.5 fatalities per one million jumps.
– The United States Parachute Association reported 2,585 skydiving injuries requiring medical care in 2017.
– The use of reserve parachutes and safety protocols has contributed to reducing fatalities and injuries.

Equipment:
– Parachuting requires specialized equipment such as parachutes, harnesses, and altimeters.
– Modern parachutes are designed for specific purposes, including sport jumping, military applications, and cargo drops.
– A reserve parachute is a crucial safety feature in case the main parachute malfunctions.
– Parachute systems are rigorously tested and maintained to ensure proper functioning.
– Skydivers also use helmets, goggles, and jumpsuits for protection and comfort during jumps.

Techniques:
– Skydivers learn various techniques for safe and controlled descents.
– Free-fall parachuting involves a period of unassisted falling before deploying the parachute.
– Canopy control is essential for steering and landing the parachute safely.
– Skydivers practice emergency procedures, such as cutaways and reserve deployments.
– Advanced techniques like formation skydiving and swooping require specialized skills and training.

Parachuting (Wikipedia)

Parachuting and skydiving is a method of transiting from a high point in an atmosphere to the ground or ocean surface with the aid of gravity, involving the control of speed during the descent using a parachute or parachutes.

Parachuting
Four skydivers with deployed parachutes in Bex, Switzerland
Highest governing bodyFédération Aéronautique Internationale
Characteristics
ContactNo
Mixed-sexYes
TypeAir sports
Presence
Country or regionWorldwide
OlympicNo
World Games1997 – 2017
Tandem in freefall

For human skydiving, it may involve a phase of more or less free-falling (the skydiving segment) which is a period when the parachute has not yet been deployed and the body gradually accelerates to terminal velocity.

For cargo parachuting, the parachute descent may begin immediately, such as a parachute-airdrop in the lower atmosphere of Earth, or be significantly delayed, such as in a planetary atmosphere where an object is descending "under parachute" following atmospheric entry from space, and may begin only after the hypersonic entry phase and initial deceleration that occurs due to friction with the thin upper atmosphere.

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