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**Etymology and History of Cars:**
– The word ‘car’ likely originated from Latin ‘carrus’ or Middle English ‘carre,’ referring to wheeled horse-drawn vehicles initially.
– Terms like ‘motor car,’ ‘horseless carriage,’ and ‘automobile’ have evolved over time.
– Significant milestones include the first steam-powered vehicle in 1672, the first self-propelled mechanical vehicle in 1769, and the development of internal combustion engines in the early 19th century.

**Car Production and Innovations:**
– The Toyota Corolla, produced since 1966, is the world’s top-selling car, and Germany’s Carl Benz invented the modern car in 1886.
– Japan ranks as the third-largest automobile manufacturer globally.
– Innovations like the first internal-combustion flat engine, factory-made cars, and the Daimler-Mercedes engine have shaped the automotive industry.

**Features and Transition in Cars:**
– Cars come equipped with driving controls, comfort features, and various lamps, with added features like reversing cameras and navigation systems.
– The majority of cars in the early 2020s use internal combustion engines, but the rise of electric cars since the 2000s is significant.
– The shift to electric cars is seen as crucial for climate change mitigation efforts.

**Costs, Benefits, and Global Usage of Cars:**
– Costs of car ownership include acquisition, repairs, fuel, insurance, and societal impacts like road maintenance and pollution.
– Benefits of cars include on-demand transportation and economic growth, with around one billion cars in use globally.
– Increasing car usage is notable in countries like China and India.

**Regional Developments in Car History:**
– American car development saw milestones like George Selden’s two-stroke engine patent, the Duryea brothers’ first American car, and the role of Henry Ford in challenging patents.
– Early car development in Britain involved attempts at steam and petrol-driven cars by pioneers like Thomas Rickett and Santler, along with the introduction of electric vehicles by Studebaker.

Car (Wikipedia)

A car, or an automobile, is a motor vehicle with wheels. Most definitions of cars state that they run primarily on roads, seat one to eight people, have four wheels, and mainly transport people, not cargo.

The Toyota Corolla has been in production since 1966 and is recognized as the world's best-selling automobile. Japan currently holds the position of the third-largest automobile manufacturer globally.
Fuel source
Wheels3–6, most often 4
Axles2, less commonly 3
InventorCarl Benz
Invented1886; 138 years ago (1886)

French inventor Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot built the first steam-powered road vehicle in 1769, while French-born Swiss inventor François Isaac de Rivaz designed and constructed the first internal combustion-powered automobile in 1808. The modern car—a practical, marketable automobile for everyday use—was invented in 1886, when German inventor Carl Benz patented his Benz Patent-Motorwagen. Commercial cars became widely available during the 20th century. One of the first cars affordable by the masses was the 1908 Model T, an American car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company. Cars were rapidly adopted in the US, where they replaced horse-drawn carriages. In Europe and other parts of the world, demand for automobiles did not increase until after World War II. The car is considered an essential part of the developed economy.

Cars have controls for driving, parking, passenger comfort, and a variety of lamps. Over the decades, additional features and controls have been added to vehicles, making them progressively more complex. These include rear-reversing cameras, air conditioning, navigation systems, and in-car entertainment. Most cars in use in the early 2020s are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by the combustion of fossil fuels. Electric cars, which were invented early in the history of the car, became commercially available in the 2000s and are predicted to cost less to buy than petrol-driven cars before 2025. The transition from fossil fuel-powered cars to electric cars features prominently in most climate change mitigation scenarios, such as Project Drawdown's 100 actionable solutions for climate change.

There are costs and benefits to car use. The costs to the individual include acquiring the vehicle, interest payments (if the car is financed), repairs and maintenance, fuel, depreciation, driving time, parking fees, taxes, and insurance. The costs to society include maintaining roads, land use, road congestion, air pollution, noise pollution, public health, and disposing of the vehicle at the end of its life. Traffic collisions are the largest cause of injury-related deaths worldwide. Personal benefits include on-demand transportation, mobility, independence, and convenience. Societal benefits include economic benefits, such as job and wealth creation from the automotive industry, transportation provision, societal well-being from leisure and travel opportunities, and revenue generation from taxes. People's ability to move flexibly from place to place has far-reaching implications for the nature of societies. There are around one billion cars in use worldwide. Car usage is increasing rapidly, especially in China, India, and other newly industrialized countries.

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