Birth tourism

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**1. Birth Tourism Overview:**

– Birth tourism is utilized as a safeguard against corruption and political instability.
– Popular birth tourism destinations include the United States, Canada, and Hong Kong.
– Several countries have adjusted their citizenship laws to discourage birth tourism.
– Unconditional birthright citizenship is granted in some countries across the Americas, Africa, and Asia-Pacific.
– The United States witnesses a significant number of annual births due to birth tourism.

**2. North American Policies:**

– The United States, Canada, and Mexico offer unconditional birthright citizenship.
– The U.S. taxes its citizens globally, including those who have never lived in the country.
– Birthright citizenship in the U.S. is constitutionally guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment.
– Concerns and federal investigations have arisen due to birth tourism to the U.S.
– Recent policies have been implemented in the U.S. to curb birth tourism.

**3. Statistics, Impact, and Enforcement:**

– The Center for Immigration Studies estimates annual births to birth tourists in the U.S.
– Birth tourism packages to various destinations have been documented.
– Maternity tourism industries catering to Asian women have been active.
– Federal raids have been conducted to address birth tourism operations.
– Instances of visa fraud, healthcare fraud, and legal actions against birth tourism operators have been reported.

**4. Worldwide Taxation and Citizenship Laws:**

– The U.S. and Eritrea are the only countries taxing their citizens worldwide.
– U.S.-born individuals are automatically subject to U.S. taxation.
– Worldwide taxation affects individuals with dual citizenship.
– Various countries have citizenship laws impacted by birth tourism.
– Hong Kong and Northern Ireland allow dual nationality.

**5. Global Impact and Social Perspectives:**

– Birth tourism trends are observed worldwide, such as Chinese birth tourists in Canada and Russian women in Brazil.
– Legal and enforcement actions against birth tourism schemes are being taken globally.
– Social and cultural perspectives include issues like Brazilian abortion secrecy and dual nationality challenges in Asian countries.
– Lessons from citizenship referendums and the impact of birth tourism on medical tourism industries are noted.
– Cultural and legal considerations in countries with birth tourism and the loyalty issues faced by individuals with multiple citizenships are highlighted.

Birth tourism (Wikipedia)

Birth tourism is the practice of traveling to another country or city for the purpose of giving birth in that country. The main reason for birth tourism is to obtain citizenship for the child in a country with birthright citizenship (jus soli). Such a child is sometimes called an "anchor baby" if their citizenship is intended to help their parents obtain permanent residency in the country. Other reasons for birth tourism include access to public schooling, healthcare, sponsorship for the parents in the future, hedge against corruption and political instability in the children’s home country. Popular destinations include the United States and Canada. Another target for birth tourism is Hong Kong, where some mainland Chinese citizens travel to give birth to gain right of abode for their children.

Countries by birthright citizenship
  Unconditional birthright citizenship for persons born in the country
  Birthright citizenship with restrictions
  Birthright citizenship abolished
  No birthright citizenship

In an effort to discourage birth tourism, Australia, France, Pakistan, Germany, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa, and the United Kingdom have modified their citizenship laws at different times, mostly by granting citizenship by birth only if at least one parent is a citizen of the country or a legal permanent resident who has lived in the country for several years. Germany has never granted unconditional birthright citizenship, but has traditionally used jus sanguinis, so, by giving up the requirement of at least one citizen parent, Germany has softened rather than tightened its citizenship laws; however, unlike their children born in Germany, non-EU- and non-Swiss-citizen parents born abroad usually cannot have dual citizenship.

No European country presently grants unconditional birthright citizenship except Finland; however, most countries in the Americas, e.g., the United States, Canada, Mexico, Argentina, and Brazil do so. In Africa, Chad, Lesotho and Tanzania grant unconditional birthright citizenship,[citation needed] as do some in the Asian-Pacific region including Fiji, Pakistan, and Tuvalu. [citation needed]

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